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MBA Sep 2023 Solved Assignments

SESSION AUG-Sep’23
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER III
course CODE & NAME DOMS304 & Applications of Operations Research
   
   

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

  1. a) A farmer has a 100 acre farm. He can sell all tomatoes, Lettuce or radishes and can get a price of Rs. 1.00 per kg for tomatoes, Rs. 0.75 a heap for lettuce and Rs. 2.00 per kg for radishes. The average yield per acre is 2,000 kg of tomatoes, 3,000 heaps of lettuce and 1,000 kg of radishes. Fertilizers are available at Rs. 0.50 per kg and the amount required per acre is 100 kg each for tomatoes and lettuce and 50 kg for radishes. Labour required for sowing, cultivating and harvesting per acre is 5 man-days for tomatoes and radishes and 6 man-days for lettuce. A total of 400 man-days of labour are available at Rs. 20 per man-day. Formulate this problem as linear programming problem. 5

Ans 1a.

Linear Programming Formulation:

Decision variables:

  • T: Acres of land allocated for tomatoes
  • L: Acres of land allocated for lettuce
  • R: Acres of land allocated for radishes

Objective function (maximization):

Maximize total revenue

  1. b) Define sensitivity analysis in LPP. Write the limitation of sensitivity analysis. 5

Ans 1b.

Sensitivity Analysis in Linear Programming Problems (LPP)

Sensitivity analysis in Linear Programming Problems (LPP) is a crucial technique used to understand how the optimal solution to an LPP might change in response to variations in its

 

  1. Solve the given LPP using simplex method:

Maximize Z = 5x1 + 2x2 +10x3

Subject to: x1– x3≤ 10

                   x2– x3 ≥ 10

                   x1 + x2+ x3≤ 10

x1, x2, x3 ≥ 0

Ans 2.

The standard form of a linear programming problem is as follows:

Maximize Z=c₁x₁+c₂x₂+c₃x₃

Subject to:

a₁₁x₁+a₁₂x₂+a₁₃x₃≤b₁

a₂₁x₁+a₂₂x₂+a₂₃x₃≤b₂

a₃₁x₁+a₃₂x₂+a₃₃x₃≤b₃

x₁,

 

  1. Solve the following linear programming problem using Revised Simplex Method:

Maximize Z   = x1 + 2x2

Subject to:          x1+x2 ≤ 3

x1 + 2x2 ≤ 5

 3x1 + x2 ≤ 6

where x1, x2 ≥ 0

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Ans 3.

Writing the standard form of the given LPP:

Maximize Z=x1+2×2+0.s1+0.s2+0.s3

Subject to:

x1+x2+s1=3

x1+2×2+s2=5

3×1+x2+s3=6

x1,x2,s1,s2,s3≥0

Where

Assignment Set – 2

 

  1. A soft drink distributor takes the contract for the sale of soft drinks at a cricket stadium during a one-day match. He has five sales boys to assign to three areas of the stadium. The table shows the estimated sales that can be made with different assignments.
No. of persons

 assigned

East stand North stand Club stand
1 15 45 30
2 30 90 60
3 60 135 90
4 120 180 120
5 150 180 150

 

Using Dynamic programming problem, how he should assign the boys in order to maximize his sales.

Ans 1.

We will perform the following activities using a Dynamic programming problem to identify how the soft drink distributor should assign the boys to maximize sales:

The following are the activities we will perform to identify how the soft drink distributor should assign the boys to maximize sales:

  1. Defining the decision variables
  2. Formulating the objective function
  3. Formulating the constraints

 

The

 

  1. Solve the following integer programming problem using Branch and Bound method:

Maximize Z = 6x1 + 8x2

Subject to: x1 + 4x2 ≤ 8

7x1 + 2x2 ≤ 14

and x1, x2 are non-negative integers

Ans 2.

The Branch and Bound method is an algorithm used to solve integer programming problems by systematically exploring the solution space. The steps involve branching on fractional solutions and bounding the objective function to eliminate certain branches. Let’s apply this method to the given problem.

The problem is to maximize Z=6×1​+8×2​ subject to the constraints:

x1​+4×2​≤8

7×1​+2×2​≤14

x1​,x2​≥0 and

 

  1. a) Solve the following Non-linear programming problem using Kuhn-Tucker conditions:

Maximize Z = x12– x1x2 – 2x22

Subject to: 4x1 + 2x2 ≤ 24

5x1 + 10x2 ≤ 20

             and x1, x2 ≥ 0

          Ans 3a.

Solving Non-linear Programming Problem using Kuhn-Tucker Conditions

Part 1: Lagrangian Function and KKT Conditions

  1. Lagrangian Function:

We first form the Lagrangian function, L(x1,x2,λ1,λ2), by incorporating the objective function and the constraints with Lagrange multipliers (λ1 and λ2):

L(x1,x2,λ1,λ2) = x1^2 – x1x2 – 2×2^2 – λ1(4×1 + 2×2 – 24) – λ2(5×1 + 10×2 – 20)

  1. KKT

 

  1. b) Write short note on the following
  2. i) Quadratic Programming problem
  3. ii) Metaheuristics techniques

Ans 3b.

Quadratic Programming Problem

Quadratic programming (QP) is a special type of mathematical optimization problem. It involves minimizing or maximizing an objective function that is quadratic (i.e., a polynomial of degree two), subject to linear constraints. The general form of a quadratic programming problem can

 

 

SESSION AUGUST/SEPTEMBER2023 
PROGRAM MASTEROF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER III
COURSE CODE & NAME DOMS303 LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

  1. Explain the advanced information technology solutions being utilized to assist logistics and supply chain management and its benefits. 5+5

Ans 1.

Advanced information technology solutions are revolutionizing logistics and supply chain management, streamlining processes, and enhancing efficiency in remarkable ways. These technologies offer numerous benefits, from improving accuracy and speed to enhancing collaboration and visibility across the supply chain.

Firstly, the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) is a game-changer. Its Half solved only

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  1. What is the Significance of forecasting in the supply chain? Explain the quantitative and qualitative approaches to forecasting. 2+8

Ans 2.

Significance of forecasting in the supply chain

Forecasting plays a crucial role in the effective management of supply chains. It is a key process that helps businesses anticipate market demands, manage resources efficiently, and make informed decisions to maintain continuity and competitiveness.

In the realm of supply chain management, forecasting primarily revolves around predicting future customer demand for products and services. This prediction is vital for several reasons. Firstly, it aids in

 

  1. Define CPFR and explain the CPFR model in the supply chain collaboration. 2+8

Ans 3.

CPFR

Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) is a business practice that combines the intelligence of multiple trading partners in the planning and fulfillment of customer demand. CPFR links sales and marketing best practices, such as category management, to supply chain planning and execution processes to increase availability while reducing inventory, transportation, and logistics costs.

CPFR

Assignment Set – 2

  1. What is Contract management? Explain its process and strategies. 2+8

Ans 4.

Contract management is a critical aspect of business operations that involves the creation, execution, and analysis of contracts to maximize operational and financial performance while minimizing risk. It is an integral part of modern business practices, ensuring that contracts are not only effective and efficient but also compliant with legal and regulatory standards.

The

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  1. What is E-Procurement? State the functions and advantages of E- Procurement. 2+8

Ans 5.

E-Procurement, also known as electronic procurement, refers to the process of purchasing goods and services using electronic methods, typically over the internet. This approach to procurement has revolutionized the way organizations handle their purchasing needs by leveraging technology to streamline and optimize the procurement process.

 

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  1. Define the GSCF model of supply chain management. Explain its process. 2+8

Ans 6.

The Global Supply Chain Forum (GSCF) model is a comprehensive framework for understanding and implementing effective supply chain management (SCM). Developed by the Global Supply Chain Forum, this model emphasizes the strategic alignment of a company’s supply chain with its business objectives, ensuring that the entire chain operates cohesively and efficiently to deliver value to the end customer.

The GSCF model identifies eight key processes that are integral to effective supply chain management: Customer

SESSION AUG/SEPT 2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER SEM III
COURSE CODE & NAME DOMS 302: ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNIG
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. What is Enterprise. Explain the benefits of ERP. 2+8

Ans 1.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) refers to a type of software that organizations use to manage day-to-day business activities such as accounting, procurement, project management, risk management and compliance, and supply chain operations. ERP systems tie together a multitude of business processes and enable the flow of data between them. By collecting an organization’s shared

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2.Write short note on following:

  1. Effectiveness of ERP and related technologies in terms of Supply Chain Management.
  2. Different types of ERP tools and its application 5+5

Ans 2.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and related technologies play a crucial role in enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of Supply Chain Management (SCM). These tools integrate various business processes, providing a unified platform for managing operations, data, and communication across an organization.

Effectiveness of ERP in

 

3.Write notes on the following:

Advantage of ERP in HR

Limitation in Sales & Distribution and Production planning module      5+5     

Ans 3.

Advantages of ERP in Human Resources (HR)

  1. Centralized Employee Information: An ERP system allows for the centralization of all employee information, including personal details, job histories, performance reviews, and benefits administration. This centralization streamlines processes and enhances data

 

Assignment Set – 2

 

 

  1. Explain in detail the implementation and Transaction of inventory management in Web ERP. 10

Inventory management in a Web ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system is a complex process involving several steps and transactions to effectively manage the stock levels of an organization. Here’s a detailed explanation of how it is typically implemented and transacted:

Implementation of Inventory Management in Web ERP

  1. Integration with Existing Systems: The Web ERP system is integrated with existing business
  1. Write a detail note on:

Major ERP vendor & their market share

Overview of Disruptive face of ERP           5+5     

Ans 2.

Major ERP vendor & their market share

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have become a crucial component in the modern business landscape, offering comprehensive solutions for managing a company’s processes and resources. Among the major ERP vendors, a few stand out due to their significant market share and influence.

SAP,

  1. Write notes on the following:

ERP in CRM perspective

Implementation of ERP in CRM     5+5

Ans 3.

ERP in CRM perspective

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) are two crucial components of modern business management. The integration of ERP in CRM is a strategic approach that enhances business efficiency, improves customer service, and fosters a data-driven culture. This essay will explore the concept of ERP in a CRM perspective and the implementation of ERP within CRM systems.

ERP systems are designed to

 

SESSION AUG/SEP 2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER III
COURSE CODE & NAME DOMS301 – ADVANCED PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

  1. Narrate the activities of operations manager. 7

List the advantages of Porter’s value chain modeling.   3

Ans 1.

Narrate the activities of operations manager

Operations managers are pivotal in ensuring the smooth functioning and success of businesses. Their day-to-day activities encompass a wide range of responsibilities, tailored to maintaining the efficiency of an organization’s operations. They primarily oversee the production process, ensuring that products and services are delivered effectively and meet quality standards. This involves planning and controlling the manufacturing process, from sourcing raw Its Half solved only

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  1. What are the types of cash flows in an organization? List the factors affecting Financing Decisions.

Explain break-even analysis. Why do organizations conduct it?  5

Ans 2.

In an organization, cash flows can be categorized into three primary types: operating cash flows, investing cash flows, and financing cash flows.

  1. Operating Cash Flows: These are cash flows that are generated from the core business activities of the organization. They include revenue from selling goods and services, cash paid to suppliers and employees, and cash received from customers. Operating cash flows reflect the ability of the company to generate sufficient revenue to maintain and grow its
  1. Explain the factors to be considered while making plant location decisions. 10

Ans 3.

 

Making plant location decisions is a complex process that involves considering various factors to ensure the optimal operation, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of the facility. Here’s an analysis of the key factors to consider:

  1. Proximity to Raw Materials: The location of a plant should be close to the source of raw materials
  2. Top of Form

Assignment Set – 2

 

  1. Explain the key elements of workforce performance management.

Explain with an example the product layout and mention its merits.      5

Ans 4.

Key elements of workforce performance management

Workforce performance management is a crucial aspect of organizational management, focusing on optimizing employee performance to achieve strategic goals. It encompasses several key elements:

  1. Goal Setting: Effective performance management begins with setting clear, measurable
  1. Explain unit load and system principles of material handling. 6

What are the types of waste JIT aims to reduce?  4         

Ans 5.

Unit Load and System Principles in Material Handling

In the realm of material handling, the concepts of unit load and system principles are fundamental. A unit load refers to the assemblage of individual items or products into a single, larger, and more manageable unit. This aggregation can be achieved through containers, pallets, or crates, making the handling, storage, and transportation of goods more efficient and

  1. Explain briefly quality improvement approaches. 5

Discuss VEDinventory management technique.   3

How do you improve process reliability to prevent failure of a system?   2        

Ans 6.

Quality improvement approaches, VED inventory management technique, and strategies to improve process reliability are critical concepts in business and operational management.

Quality Improvement Approaches

Quality improvement in any organization involves systematic activities that lead to measurable improvement in services, products, or processes. It’s based on various

 

 

SESSION AUG-SEP’23
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER III
COURSE CODE & NAME DMBA302 – LEGAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. What is “Competency of Contract ”?How “discharge of contracts” occurs?

Ans 1.

“Competency of Contract” and “Discharge of Contracts” are significant concepts in contract law, each playing a crucial role in the formation and conclusion of contractual agreements.

Competency of Contract

The term “Competency of Contract” refers to the legal ability of a party to enter into a contract. For a contract

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2.Define contract of indemnity. Describe the rights of the indemnifier and the indemnity holder. 

Ans 2.

A contract of indemnity is a legal agreement where one party promises to compensate for the loss or damage incurred by another party. Typically, this kind of contract is prevalent in insurance policies, where the insurer agrees to indemnify the insured against losses from specific perils or causes of loss.

In the realm of contracts, the concept of indemnity is crucial, especially in business and insurance contexts. This type of contract creates a duty for the indemnifier to compensate the

 

3.(a) What is a partnership?

(b) Briefly state special features of a partnership on the basis of which its existence can be determined under the Indian Partnership Act? 

Ans 3.

Partnership
A partnership is a form of business organization where two or more individuals come together to carry on a business with the intent of sharing profits and losses. This business structure is based on a partnership agreement, either oral or written, detailing the responsibilities, profit-sharing ratio, and other operational details of the partnership. Under the Indian Partnership Act of 1932, a partnership is defined as “the relation between persons who have

Assignment Set – 2

4.What do you mean by negotiable instruments? What are the various types of negotiable instruments recognised by the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881?      

Ans 4.

Negotiable instruments are financial instruments that guarantee the payment of a specified amount of money, either on demand or at a set time, to the bearer or the individual named in the instrument. These instruments are transferable by endorsement or by delivery, and the holder in due course, who acquires them for value and in good faith, without any notice of defects in the title of the person who transferred it, enjoys certain privileges.

The Negotiable Instruments Act of 1881, a legal framework in India, recognizes several types of negotiable instruments. These include:

  1. Promissory Notes: A
  1. Describe the main features of the Consumer Protection Act, 2019.

Ans 5.

The Consumer Protection Act, 2019, introduced in India, serves as a significant upgrade to consumer rights and protections, replacing the previous Consumer Protection Act of 1986. This newer legislation has been crafted to address the complexities of modern markets and the evolving needs of consumers, particularly in the context of digital and online transactions.

Enhanced Definition of Consumer:

6.Explain the rights available to citizens under the RTI Act, 2005.         

Ans 6.

The Right to Information Act (RTI), enacted in India in 2005, is a significant legislative measure aimed at promoting transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority. This Act empowers citizens to request information from any public authority, thereby making the government more accountable and its processes more transparent.

Under the RTI Act, the most fundamental right granted to citizens is the right to request information from any public

SESSION AUG/SEPT2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER III
COURSE CODE & NAME DMBA301 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
   
   

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. What do you understand by term Research, discuss and explain its various types.

Ans 1.

Research is a systematic and detailed study into a specific problem, issue, or concern using scientific methods. It’s the adult’s way of trying to understand an issue thoroughly and objectively while looking for a solution or contributing to knowledge. This process involves gathering, analyzing, and interpreting information to answer questions or solve a problem, and it can be carried out in various fields like science, arts, humanities, and social sciences.

There are several types of research, Its Half solved only

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  1. Discuss various methods of primary and secondary data collection.

Ans 2.

Primary and secondary data collection are crucial methods in research, each with distinct approaches and purposes. Let’s delve into these methods, emphasizing more on descriptive paragraphs rather than headings.

Primary Data Collection

Primary data collection involves gathering new data directly from sources. This is typically done when existing data does not suffice or is not applicable to the specific research problem. Methods of primary data collection vary, but some of the most common include surveys, interviews,

Top of Form

  1. Discuss the term questionnaire and types of questions questionnaire should have with examples.

Ans 3.

A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions designed to gather information from respondents. The primary objective of a questionnaire is to extract data in a standardized manner, ensuring that each respondent is presented with the same questions in a similar order. This consistency makes the responses easier to analyze and compare.

There are several types of questions that a questionnaire can include, each serving different purposes and providing various

Assignment Set – 2

  1. Explain Hypothesis. Discuss various types of hypothesis.

Ans 4.

A hypothesis is a fundamental component in the scientific method, serving as a tentative explanation or prediction about a phenomenon or a relationship between variables. It’s a starting point for scientific inquiry, offering a testable and falsifiable statement based on existing knowledge and observations. In essence, a hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work.

There are various types of hypotheses, each

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  1. Discuss the structure and various components of research report

Ans 5.

Writing a research report involves presenting findings in a structured and coherent manner. The purpose of a research report is to communicate the methods, results, analysis, and conclusions of a research study in a clear and organized way. The structure of a research report typically includes several key components, which are discussed below in a more paragraph-centric style, with fewer headings,

  1. A survey of farmers yields following data:
No of Farmers No of Farmers Who Total
  Own Farms Rented Farms  
Using Fertilizers 50 50 100
Not Using Fertilizers 30 70 100
Total 80 120 200

 

Can it be concluded that use of fertilizers is related to ownership of the farms?(Tabulate value to refer is 3.84)

Ans 3.

Category 1 Category 2 Total
Group 1 50 50 100
Group 2 30 70 100
Total 80 120 200

Hypothesis Test

SESSION       AUG-SEP’23

PROGRAM   MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)

SEMESTER IV

COURSE CODE & NAME             DITF404

Enterprise Resource Planning

Assignment Set – 1

Questions

 

  1. Explain the ERP selection criteria and methodology for ERP

Ans:

(a) ERP Selection Criteria: Business Requirements Assessment: 

Criteria: Understand the organization’s business processes and requirements thoroughly.

Methodology: Conduct interviews, workshops, and surveys to gather input from key stakeholders. Document current processes and identify pain points and improvement areas.

Scalability and Flexibility: 

Criteria:

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  1. Discuss about ERP in Manufacturing and Finance 

Ans:Although ERP software is frequently referred to as “financials,” ERP and financials are not the same things. ERP’s Financials subset of modules is referred to here. Financial functions include modules for accounting hub, financial accounting, sub-ledger accounting, payables and receivables, expense management, revenue management, grants, billing, project management, joint venture

 

  1. Interpret on MRP and MRP II to boost a manufacturing company’s competitiveness with ERP

Ans: MRP and MRP-II to boost a manufacturing company’s competitiveness:

Material Requirements Planning (MRP) & Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRPII):-

The goal of MRP is to automate three key processes in a manufacturing unit:

  1. Reduce lead times
  2. Improve stock levels
  3. Increase service levels to improve organizational effectiveness

To help manufacturing companies estimate and optimize their material requirements, in the year 1970s MRP was created. The earlier Material Requirements Planning later developed into

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 2

Questions

  1. Discuss upon the ERP in Purchase department.

Ans:Purchasing module makes it easier to buy the necessary raw materials. Additionally, it automates the purchasing operations. Finding potential suppliers and haggling over prices are processes. Additionally included are the processes for billing and awarding purchase orders to the supplier. Supply chain management software is frequently used in conjunction with the ERP procurement module, which is firmly integrated with the production planning modules and

 

 

  1. Explain CRM software implementation in ERP.

Ans:The Payne and Frow Five Forces: CRM approach additionally includes phases that assist in customer segmentation based on potential long-term value and offer KPIs for engaging those segments. The procedures involve developing a strategy, creating value, integrating many channels, evaluating performance, and managing information. This model also lists four requirements that must be

 

  1. Analyse the benefits of Human Resource Management module of ERP in an organization.

Ans:Several components are thought of as pillars for good HRM policy when we talk about HRM.

These pillars include:

Recruitment and selection:

A primary HR duty is to find candidates and pick the best ones to join the organization and work there. The organization’s lifeblood is its people, thus identifying the right candidates is an important endeavour.

When a new position is created or an existing position becomes available, the demand for new hires typically begins. The job description is subsequently forwarded by the direct manager to

 

SESSION       AUG-SEPT 2023

PROGRAM   MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)

SEMESTER  IV

COURSE CODE & NAME DITF402-FINTECH PAYMENTS AND REGULATIONS

 

Assignment Set – 1

Questions

  1. Why PayPal considered to be revolution in FinTech field?

Ans:

PayPal is considered a revolutionary force in the FinTech (Financial Technology) field for several reasons, many of which have had a significant impact on the way financial transactions are conducted online.

Here are some key aspects that contribute to PayPal’s status as a revolution in FinTech: 

  • Online Payment Facilitator: PayPal emerged as one of the first widely adopted platforms that facilitated online payments. It provided a secure and convenient way for individuals

 

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  1. What advantages Block Chain Technology brings in Financial Services?

Ans:

Block chain technology, which underlies crypto currencies like Bit coin, has numerous advantages that make it particularly valuable in the realm of financial services.

Here are some key advantages: 

Decentralization:  Block chain operates on a decentralized network of computers (nodes). This decentralization

 

  1. What are decentralized applications (dApps) and smart contracts?

Ans:

Decentralized Applications (dApps)

Currently almost all applications and websites are centralized, meaning they are installed and run from one central server. dApps utilize the computing power, storage space and resources of the entire network of computers connected to it. Decentralized apps do not have single entity

 

Assignment Set – 2

Questions

  1. How do smart contracts contribute to the development of the metaverse? Discuss the advantages and applications of smart contracts in the context of the metaverse.

Ans:Smart contracts play a crucial role in the development of the met averse by enabling secure and automated transactions, interactions, and governance within virtual environments. Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into lines of code.

In the met averse, smart contracts leverage block chain technology to facilitate various activities,

 

  1. How does RegTech help in reducing compliance-related errors and costs?

Ans:

  • Automated Customer Due Diligence (CDD): RegTech solutions automate the collection and verification of customer information, such as identity documents, to perform CDD checks. These checks help verify the identity of customers and assess their risk profiles,

 

 

  1. How does AI and ML enhance Know Your Customer (KYC) processes?

Ans: Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) play a crucial role in enhancing Know Your Customer (KYC) processes by automating and improving various aspects of customer identification, verification, and due diligence.

Here are several ways in which AI and ML contribute to the enhancement of KYC processes: 

Automated

 

SESSION       AUG-SEP’23

PROGRAM   MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)

SEMESTER  IV

COURSE CODE & NAME DITF401- E-COMMERCE

Assignment Set – 1

Questions

 

  1. A). Discuss the different features of e-commerce.

Ans: Let us briefly discuss the features of e-commerce, as shown in Fig.:-

  • Virtual Existence: It is always easy for merchants to set up virtual store for selling goods and services than developing a bricks and mortar store.

Through e-commerce, one can develop websites and use social media, e-mails, etc. to conduct business activities. Any type of product or service can be put on sale through e-commerce.

  • Availability

 

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B). Discuss any three factors that have influenced the use of e-commerce for business operations in India.

Ans:Through e-commerce, business organizations aim to bring substantial reduction in costs of business operations and improvement in their profit margins. In India, there has been dramatic progress in e-commerce over the last

 

 

  1. A). Define protocol. Explain IP address.

Ans: Protocol:  In a general sense, a protocol is a set of rules or guidelines that dictate how something should be done. It is a standard that ensures consistency and facilitates communication or interaction between different systems or entities. Protocols are widely used in various fields, including networking, communication, security, and medicine.

The rules specified by a protocol define the format, timing, sequencing, and error checking for the

B). Explain the types of web servers.

Ans:

 

 

  1. A). What do you understand by e-business? Explain.

Ans:e-Business or electronic business refers to the deployment of the internet to perform business activities and processes and enhance e-commerce, organizational communication and associations with employees, customers, vendors, and other stakeholders. Thus, it

 

B). Describe the stages of ESLC.

Ans:The stages of ESLC:-

 

 

Assignment Set – 2

Questions

 

  1. A). How can a Trojan horse affect a client’s machine?

Ans:Trojan horse can be defined as a program which is hidden behind another program and conduct malicious functions. It could be an email attachment or a free download file. Once a user clicks it, the malware hidden inside gets onto the user’s computer and performs the intended functions it is

 

(B). Discuss the benefits of DRP.

Ans:The main benefits of DRPs are:

  • Reduce costs – The longer business operations remain suspended, greater the financial losses can be. DRPs with measures for regular hardware and software updates could help a business organization

 

 

  1. (A). Discuss the features of e-payment systems.

Ans:The key features of e-payment systems are:

  • Anonymity: The payment system should provide anonymity of transactions and a third party should not be able to trace any details related to the transaction.
  • Security: The payment method should offer security of transaction. It should be able to exclude all kinds of fraudulent

 

(B). Discuss the steps involved in the functioning of EDI.

Ans:There prevail four steps that describe the functioning of EDI.

Step 1: Preparing documents to be sent the first step focuses on gathering and arranging data. For instance, rather than printing purchase orders, enterprise systems create electronic files along with essential information for building

 

 

  1. (A). Describe the objectives of creating an e-commerce website.

Ans:According to Howcroft and Carroll, “any methodology used for website development must be generic and flexible enough to account for the uniqueness and individuality of websites, yet concise enough to achieve the task of development.”

Business organizations face the challenging task to create a website with continuous growth and the rapid changes in

 

 

(B). Enumerate the importance of e-marketing.

Ans:The important advantages of e-marketing are as follows:

  • Provides a wide choice to customers from online stores in the country and across the globe. E-marketing has given opportunities to people for buying goods online located in any part of the world.
  • E-
SESSION AUG-SEP’23
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER 3
COURSE CODE & NAME DBFI304 FINANCIAL SERVICES
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

  1. What do you understand by financial services? Explain its objectives.

Ans 1.

Financial services refer to the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers, and some government-sponsored enterprises. These services are fundamental to the functioning of economies, facilitating the flow of capital and liquidity in the market.

The objectives of financial

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  1. Mutual funds come in various types, each designed to meet different investment objectives and risk tolerance levels. What are some common products of mutual funds? Explain

Ans 2.

Mutual funds offer a diverse range of products, each tailored to meet specific investment objectives and risk tolerance levels. This variety allows investors to choose funds that align with their financial goals, whether they’re seeking growth, income, or a balance of both.

One common type of mutual fund is the equity fund, which primarily invests in stocks. Equity funds are

  1. Elaborate the different types of Portfolio Management Services and mention the strategies used by portfolio manager as a part of effective portfolio management.

Ans 3.

Portfolio Management Services (PMS) are specialized investment solutions offered to cater to the diverse needs of investors. These services are often tailored to individual investment objectives and risk tolerance, providing a personalized approach to wealth management. In the realm of PMS, there are different types that cater to various investment styles and

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Assignment Set – 2

  1. What is merchant banking? Explain the key roles and functions of merchant banks in the financial industry?

Merchant banking refers to a specialized area of banking, which caters primarily to the needs of large enterprises and high-net-worth individuals. Unlike commercial banks, which primarily deal with everyday banking transactions and consumer loans, merchant banks focus on providing more complex services. The key roles and functions of merchant banks in the financial

 

  1. Explain the key principles that underlie the concept of insurance. What are the roles/functions of IRDA?

Ans 5.

Insurance is a fundamental financial tool designed to manage risks and provide protection against potential financial losses. It operates on several key principles:

  1. Risk Pooling: The cornerstone of insurance is the concept of risk pooling, where a group of individuals or entities contribute to a collective fund. This fund is used to cover the losses of those few members who experience a covered event. By spreading the risk

 

 

  1. Elaborate the different types of factoring services. How it is different from forfaiting?

Ans 6.

Factoring and forfaiting are financial services that provide businesses with solutions to manage their accounts receivable and cash flow. However, they differ in their structure, usage, and the type of receivables they handle.

Types of Factoring Services

  1. Recourse
SESSION AUG-SEP’23
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER III
COURSE CODE & NAME DBFI303 – PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF INSURANCE
   
   
  1. Assignment Set – 1
  2. What requirements must the insurable risk meet to be considered a true risk? Explain the classification of risk in three different classes.
  3. Ans 1.
  4. Requirements for an Insurable Risk
  5. An insurable risk must meet several key requirements to be classified as a true risk. Firstly, the risk must be due to a chance event, meaning it is unforeseen and accidental. This unpredictability is essential because if the event is certain or within the control of the insured, it doesn’t constitute a true risk. For example, the risk of a house catching fire is uncertain, whereas the wear and tear of the house over time is a predictable event and thus not insurable.
  6. The risk must be Its Half solved only
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  18. Explain the principle of Pooling in Insurance. And also explain the three categories of Insurance in India.
  19. Ans 2.
  20. Principle of pooling in insurance
  21. Pooling in insurance is a fundamental principle that underpins how insurance works. The concept revolves around the aggregation of risks from multiple policyholders. When individuals or entities purchase insurance policies, they contribute premiums into a collective pool managed by the insurance company. This pool of funds is then used to pay out claims to those who suffer covered losses. The idea is that while not all policyholders will experience a loss at the same time or to the same extent, the pooled resources ensure that sufficient funds are available to compensate those who
  22. What is aninsurance contract? Explain in brief the elements of an Insurance Contract.
  23. Ans 3.
  24. An insurance contract is a legally binding agreement between two parties, the insurer and the insured, where the insurer agrees to compensate the insured for specific potential future losses in exchange for a premium. This type of contract is fundamental in managing risk and providing financial security.
  25. Elements of an
  26. Assignment Set – 2
  27. What is the Customer’s buying behavior? What are the key things that influence the customer behavior at the purchase point?
  28. Ans 4.
  29. Customer buying behavior refers to the decision-making processes and actions involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences. Understanding these behaviors is crucial for businesses to effectively market their products and tailor their offerings to meet customer needs and preferences.
  30. At the purchase
  31. Explain the Life Insurance Act, 1956..
  32. Ans 5.
  33. The Life Insurance Act of 1956 in India marked a significant turning point in the insurance sector, particularly life insurance. This Act led to the nationalization of the life insurance industry in India and established the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC). Before delving into the specifics of the Act, it’s essential to understand the context in which it was introduced.
  34. Prior to 1956, life insurance in India was predominantly managed by private companies, many of which were foreign-owned. There were concerns about the operations of these companies, particularly regarding their reliability and the security of policyholders’ funds. The need for a regulated and stable
  35. Write a detailed note on Common risks faced by owners of assets in General Insurance. Also write in brief note on Personal Accident Insurance.
  36. Ans 6.
  37. Common risks faced by owners of assets in General Insurance
  38. General insurance, also known as non-life insurance, provides coverage for various assets against a multitude of risks. Owners of assets often turn to general insurance to protect themselves from unexpected financial losses due to various events. One of the common risks faced by asset owners is damage or loss due to natural disasters. This includes events like earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and wildfires. These natural occurrences can cause significant damage to properties and assets
SESSION AUG/SEP  2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER III
COURSE CODE & NAME DBFI302 – FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS VALUATION
   
   
  1. Assignment Set – 1
  2. Explain different techniques of forecasting.
  3. Ans 1.
  4. Forecasting is a fundamental technique used in various fields such as finance, economics, weather prediction, and supply chain management to anticipate future events based on historical data and analysis. There are several techniques of forecasting, each with its unique approach and applications.
  5. Qualitative Forecasting: This technique relies on expert opinions and subjective inputs rather than quantitative dataIts Half solved only
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  17. Explain different types of earning ratios.
  18. Ans 2.
  19. Earning ratios are critical financial metrics used by investors, analysts, and other stakeholders to assess a company’s financial health, profitability, and future growth potential. These ratios provide insights into how efficiently a company is generating profits and the extent to which these profits are available to shareholders. Understanding different types of earning ratios is essential for making informed investment decisions.
  20. Price to Earnings Ratio
  21. Explain the importance for reformulation of financial statements.
  22. Ans 3.
  23. Reformulating financial statements is a crucial practice in the field of financial analysis, as it allows for a clearer and more meaningful interpretation of a company’s financial health and performance. This process involves reorganizing and adjusting the information presented in a company’s financial statements—namely the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement—to provide a more transparent and comparable view of its financial activities.
  24. Reformulation helps in enhancing comparability. Financial statements are prepared according to
  25. Assignment Set – 2
  26. Explain any five methods of valuation in merger and acquisition.
  27. Ans 1.
  28. Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) involve complex financial analysis, and valuation is a critical part of this process. There are several methods used to assess the value of companies involved in M&A. Here, five commonly used valuation methods are explained:
  29. Explain the divisions of cash flow statement    
  30. Ans 2.
  31. A cash flow statement is a critical financial document for businesses, providing a detailed analysis of how a company generates and uses cash over a specific period. Unlike the income statement, which uses accrual accounting, the cash flow statement provides an insight into the company’s actual cash position, offering a more tangible perspective of financial health. It is divided into three main sections: operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. Here is a detailed
  32. A Ltd produces its balance sheet on 31 March 2021 and requests its business professional appraiser to evaluate the value of business based on Asset Based Valuation Method. Assuming you are a business professional appraiser, evaluate the Company A as on 31 March 2022.
Liabilities Amount (in USD) Assets Amount (in USD)
Equity share capital 25,000 Fixed Assets 41,000
Preference Share capital 11,000 Inventories 23,500
Reserves and surplus 8,000 Cash and Bank Balance 11,500
Long-term debt 18,000 Debtors 13,000
Short-term debt 11,000    
Creditors 16,000    
Total 89,000 Total 89,000
  1. Ans 3.
  2. Company A
  3. Valuation Based on Asset Based Valuation Method
  4. As of March 31, 2022
  5. Assets
  6. Fixed Assets: $41,000
  7. Inventories: $23,500
  8. Cash and Bank Balance: $11,500
  9. Debtors: $13,000

 

SESSION AUG/SEP 2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER III
COURSE CODE & NAME DBFI301 – BANK MANAGEMENT & FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

  1. Explain the types of banks in detail? 10

Ans 1.

Banks play a crucial role in the global economy by providing a wide range of financial services to individuals, businesses, and governments. They are typically categorized based on the nature of their operations, the services they offer, and their clientele. Here are the main types of banks:

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  1. What are the functions of RBI? Elaborate 10

Ans 2.

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the central bank of India and plays a critical role in the Indian economy and financial system. Here are the key functions of the RBI:

  1. Monetary Authority: The RBI formulates and implements India’s monetary policy with the

 

  1. Explain in detail the role of banks in economic development? 10

Ans 3.

Banks play a crucial role in the economic development of a country. They function as a pivotal mechanism in the overall financial system, providing the means for financial transactions, savings, investments, and transfers of money. Let’s delve into the various ways through which banks contribute to economic

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Assignment Set – 2

 

  1. Describe the importance of Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999? 10

Ans 4.

The Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) 1999, enacted in India, represents a crucial piece of economic legislation that was implemented to facilitate external trade and payments, and to promote the orderly development and maintenance of the foreign exchange market in India. Its significance can be

  1. Explain the role played by commercial banks in our country? 10

Ans 5.

Commercial banks play a crucial role in the economic development and financial stability of a country. Their impact is multifaceted, influencing various aspects of the economy and society. In this discussion, we will explore these roles in detail, focusing on key areas such as financial intermediation, economic growth, monetary policy, credit provision, and technological

 

  1. Explain about the different types of risks in banking? 10

Ans 6.

In banking, managing various types of risks is crucial for maintaining stability and ensuring the sector’s overall health. Here’s an overview of the different types of risks in banking:

  1. Credit Risk: This is the risk of loss due to a borrower’s failure to repay a loan or meet contractual obligations. It is the primary risk in banking and can occur in various forms, such as individual loans, business loans, or credit extended to other banks. Credit risk management involves assessing the creditworthiness of borrowers, setting credit limits, and monitoring the

MCA 1st Sem sep 2023 Solved Assignments

SESSION       SEPTEMBER 2023

PROGRAM   MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATION (MCA)

SEMESTER  I

COURSE CODE & NAME DCA6101 – FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER & IT

  1. Explain the key characteristics of each generation of computers.

Answer:

The history of computer development is frequently stated to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. A generation refers to the state of improvement in the product development process. This term is also used in the different advancements of new computer technology. With each new generation, the circuitry has gotten smaller and more advanced than the previous Its Half solved only

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  1. Discuss the important features of micro, mini, mainframes and supercomputers.

Answer:

Microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes, and supercomputers are different categories of computers that vary in terms of size, processing power, and intended use. Here are the important features of each:

 

  1. Elaborate on various external memory devices being used to store memory with appropriate examples.

Answer:

External memory devices are auxiliary storage devices that provide additional storage space for computers and other digital devices. These devices are essential for storing data and files that exceed the internal storage capacity of a device. Here are various types of external memory devices with examples:

  1. Hard Disk

SET-II

  1. Briefly explain the software development process.

Answer:

The software development process is a structured set of activities that lead to the creation of a software product. While specific methodologies and practices can vary, the general software development life cycle typically includes the following phases:

  1. Requirements Gathering:
    • Identify and document the needs and expectations of the end-users and stakeholders.
    • Define the
  1. Enlist the main functions of the operating system.

Answer:

An operating system (OS) is a crucial software component that serves as an intermediary between computer hardware and user applications. It provides a set of essential functions to manage and control computer resources efficiently. The main functions of an operating system include:

  1. Process Management

 

  1. Discuss the TCP/IP protocol layers with the help of a diagram.

Answer:

The TCP/IP protocol suite is a set of communication protocols that are widely used on the Internet and form the basis of network communication. The suite is named after its two most important protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). The TCP/IP protocol stack is divided into four layers, each serving specific functions. These layers, from the bottom to the top, are:

  1. Link
SESSION AUGUST  2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (MCA)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME DCA6102 – PROGRAMMING IN C
CREDITS 4
NUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & MARKS 02

30 Marks each

1.(a) Explain different generations of computer system.

(b) What are the differences between concurrent and parallel execution?

Ans 1.

(a) Different Generations of Computer Systems:

The history of computers can be divided into several generations, each marked by significant technological advancements and changes in hardware and software architecture. These generations are typically categorized as follows:

  1. First Generation (1940s-1950s):

Vacuum Tubes: The earliest Its Half solved only

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2 (a) Explain  zero, one, two and three address  instruction  with the help of given  instruction

X=(A/B)+(C*D)

(b) Discuss different types of addressing modes in detail.

 

Ans:

2 (a) Zero, One, Two, and Three Address Instructions:

In computer architecture and assembly language programming, instructions are used to perform various operations on data. The number of addresses or operands an instruction uses can vary, and this categorization is often referred to as zero, one, two, or three-address instructions. Let’s use the given expression, X = (A/B) + (C*D), to illustrate these types of instructions:

  1. Zero-Address Instructions:

 3 (a) Explain different types of techniques to handle hazards in pipelining.

(b) Differentiate between unconditional and conditional branch.

Ans 3.

3 (a) Techniques to Handle Hazards in Pipelining:

Pipelining is a technique used in modern microprocessors to improve instruction execution throughput by breaking down the instruction execution process into stages. However, pipelining can introduce hazards, which are situations where the next instruction cannot proceed smoothly due to dependencies or conflicts with previous instructions. To handle hazards in pipelining, several

  1. Describe various features of the C programming language.

Ans 4.

Various Features of the C Programming Language:

C is a powerful and versatile programming language that has been widely used for several decades. It is known for its simplicity, efficiency, and portability. Here are various features of the C programming language:

  1. Procedural Language: C is a procedural programming language, which means it is organized

 

 

 

  1. Explain various flow control statements in C with examples.

Ans 5.

Various Flow Control Statements in C with Examples:

Flow control statements in C are used to control the execution order of instructions within a program. Here are some commonly used flow control statements with examples:

 

  1. if Statement:

 

 

  1. Define a function. List and explain the categories of user-defined functions.
  2. Define an array. How to initialize a one-dimensional array? Explain with suitable examples.

Definition of a Function and Categories of User-Defined Functions:

A function in programming is a self-contained block of code that performs a specific task or set of tasks. It is a reusable unit of code that can be called from various parts of a program. Functions enhance code modularity, readability, and reusability. In C and many other programming languages, functions are defined using a set of rules and syntax. There are several categories of user-defined functions:

  1. Function Declaration/Prototype:
    • A function declaration, also known as a function prototype, specifies the function’s name, return type, and the types of its parameters. It tells the compiler about the function’s

BCA 1st sem Sep 2023 Solved Assignments

 

SESSION AUGUST 2023
PROGRAM BCA
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DCA1101
CREDITS 4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks 02

30

SET-I

  1. (a) Define the term ‘Computer’?

(b) Explain the organization of computer?

Ans 1.

(a) Computer

A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data, to perform arithmetic or logical operations. It has the capability to store, retrieve, and process data. Based on the given instructions or programs, it can convert raw data into meaningful information. Computers can be designed to do almost anything with information, from simple tasks like calculating arithmetic operations to complex operations like rendering graphics or simulating natural phenomena.

 (b) Organization of computer Its Half solved only

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  1. Discuss the different classifications of computer?

Ans 2.

Computers have evolved significantly over the years, leading to a wide array of types based on size, functionality, and purpose. Here are some of the primary classifications of computers:

  1. Based on Size and Power:

Supercomputers: These are the most powerful computers in terms of processing speed and computational capability. Supercomputers are often used for complex simulations, such as predicting weather patterns, molecular modeling, and deep space explorations. Notable examples include IBM’s Summit and

  1. Explain Random Access Memory and Read Only Memory along with their types?

Ans 3.

  1. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM):

RAM is a type of volatile computer memory, meaning the data stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off. RAM is the primary memory used by the computer to store data that is currently being processed or accessed. The “random access” term means that data can be read from or written to any address in

SET-II

  1. (a) Define Software Testing?

(b) Explain software testing strategy in detail?     

 

Ans 4.

(a) Software Testing

Software Testing is the process of evaluating and verifying that a software product or application meets specified requirements and identifies any defects or discrepancies in its functionality, performance, or usability. The primary objective is to ensure the quality of the software, detecting errors or bugs, and ensuring that the software behaves as intended.

 

(b) Software testing strategy

A software testing strategy provides a systematic approach to the testing process, ensuring that all

 

  1. (a) What is Operating System?

(b) Discuss the different components of Operating System?        

Ans 5.

(a) Operating System

An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that acts as an intermediary between computer users and the computer hardware. It provides a user interface and controls the computer hardware so that software applications can function.

The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system.

 

  1. (a) Explain OSI Reference model?

(b) How is data transmission done in OSI model?

Ans 6.

(a) OSI Reference Model Explanation (200 words)

The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model is a conceptual framework used to understand and standardize the functions of a telecommunication or computing system. It divides the communication process into seven distinct layers, each responsible for a specific set of tasks. The main purpose of the OSI model is to facilitate interoperability between diverse

 

SESSION AugUsT 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR of COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (BCA)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME dca1102 – Programming in c
CREDITS 4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks 02

30 Marks each

 

SET – I

  1. Describe various features of the C programming language.

Ans 1.

Features of the C Programming Language

Simplicity and Efficiency: C is known for its straightforward syntax and ease of use. While its roots date back to the early days of computing, its simple structure has made it a staple in modern programming. Moreover, C programs are efficient and have a fast execution time due to their close relation to assembly Its Half solved only

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  1. Explain various flow control statements in C with examples.

Ans 2.

Flow control in C is crucial for directing the program execution sequence based on certain conditions. There are several flow control statements in C that include conditional statements, looping statements, and jump statements. Let’s delve into each of them:

  1. Define a function. List and explain the categories of user-defined functions.

Ans 3.

Defining a Function:

In programming, a function is a self-contained block of code that encapsulates a specific task or related group of tasks. In Python, functions are defined using the def keyword. Here’s a basic example:

def greet(name):

return “Hello, ” + name + “!”

In the above example, we have defined a function named greet that takes a single parameter, name, and

SET – II

  1. Define an array. How to initializea one-dimensional array? Explain with suitable examples.

Ans 4.

Definition of an Array:

An array is a data structure that can hold more than one value at a time. It is a collection of variables that are accessed with an index number. Each element can be accessed by its position in the array. The majority of languages define the starting index of the array as 0.

  1. Initializing

5a. Define Structure and write the general syntax for declaring and accessing members.

  1. List out the differences between unions and structures.

Ans 5.

5a Structure:

Definition:

A structure (often referred to as a “struct”) is a composite data type in many programming languages that groups together variables under a single name. These variables can be of different data types, and each of them is called a member of the structure. Structures are used for grouping data of different types together to describe a real-world entity in a more logical way.

General Syntax for

  1. Explain the difference between static memory allocation and dynamic memory allocation in C. Explain various dynamic memory allocation function in c.

Ans 6.

STATIC MEMORY ALLOCATION:

Definition: In static memory allocation, the memory for variables is allocated at compile time. The size of the memory to be allocated is known beforehand and remains fixed during the execution of the program.

Duration: Memory is allocated for the entire duration of the program’s execution. Once allocated, the memory size cannot be

SESSION AugUsT 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR of COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (BCA)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME dca1103

 

  1. State inclusion-exclusion principle. In a class of 1000 students, 625 students pass in Mathematics and 525 pass in Data Structure. How many students pass in Mathematics only and how many students pass in Data Structure only?

Ans. Inclusion-exclusion principle states that the number of elements in the union of two or more sets is equal to the sum of their sizes minus the size of their intersection, plus the size of the intersection of their pairwise intersections, and so on.

Formula:

|A ∪ B| = |A| + |B| – |A ∩ B|

Example: In

  1. Simplify into form and find its modulus and the amplitude.

Ans.

Ans.
Dividing the numerator and denominator by  gives:

Multiplying the numerator and denominator by the conjugate

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  1. Evaluate .
  2. Solve the differential equation.

Ans a

To evaluate the definite integral , where  and  are the limits of integration, you can use integration by parts. The formula for integration by parts

Ans b.

This is a homogeneous differential equation, which means that we can rewrite it as a separable equation by dividing both

  1. Evaluate the followings:

(i)   (ii)  

 

  1. Find the probability of drawing a diamond card in each of the two consecutive draw from a pack of well shuffled 52 cards, (i) if the card is replaced, (ii) if the card is not replaced.

Ans.

(i) Evaluate the following:

This is a straightforward application of L’Hôpital’s rule. Dividing both the numerator and denominator by ,

 

  1. Check whether the following is Tautology or Contradiction:
  • (i)
  • (ii)

 

Ans. Solution 1:

Using a truth table:

 

 

  1. Apply Cramer’s rule to solve the system of equations: ; 2; .

Ans. To solve the system of equations using Cramer’s rule, we first need to calculate the determinant of the coefficient matrix.

| 3 | 1 | 2 || 2 | -3 | -1 || 1 | 2 | 1 || 3 | 1 | 2 || 2 | -3 | -1 || 1 | -2 | 0 || 3 |

 

 

SESSION AUGUST 2023
PROGRAM BCA
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DCA1104& Understanding PC & Troubleshooting
CREDITS 4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks 02 & 30 Marks each

SET-I

 

  1. Explain various types of BUSES and processor modes in CPU.

Ans 1.

TYPES OF BUSES IN A CPU:

In computer architecture, a bus is a communication system that transfers data between components within a computer or between computers. These buses enable the sharing of data and commands between the central processing unit (CPU) and other hardware components.

System Bus or Front-Side Bus (FSB): This is the primary communication line in a system, connecting the CPU to the main memory (RAM) and the motherboard’s main chipset. The speed of the FSB is crucial for the computer’s performance Its Half solved only

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  1. Explain S RAM, SD RAM, DDR SD RAM, and ED RAM. 2*5

Ans 2.

S RAM (Static RAM):

Definition: Static RAM is a type of semiconductor memory that retains its contents as long as power is connected. It uses bistable latching circuitry to store each bit.

Characteristics:

  • Faster than DRAM.
  • Requires more

 

 

  1. Explain password trouble shooting in CMOS. Discuss briefly features of BIOS.

Ans 3.

Password Troubleshooting in CMOS:

The CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) is a type of non-volatile RAM that stores the BIOS settings of a computer, including the system time and hardware configuration. Sometimes, for security purposes, a password can be set in the BIOS to prevent unauthorized access to the system’s setup. If

SET-II

  1. Describe construction of a hard drive with diagram.

Ans 4.

Construction of a Hard Drive

A hard drive, commonly referred to as a Hard Disk Drive (HDD), is a critical component in modern computers, responsible for storing vast amounts of data in a non-volatile manner. This means that the data remains intact even when the computer is powered off. The construction of a hard drive is intricate, involving several components that work together to read, write, and store data. Let’s dive into the primary

 

 

  1. Explain Blu Ray disk in brief. What are the software standards followed by Blu Ray disk?

Ans 5.

BLU-RAY DISC: AN OVERVIEW

The Blu-Ray Disc (often simply referred to as “Blu-Ray”) is a digital optical disc storage format designed to supersede DVDs, offering greater storage capacity and better quality for video and audio content. The name “Blu-Ray” is derived from the blue-violet laser used to read and write this type of disc. Because of its enhanced storage capabilities, the Blu-Ray Disc has become the standard for high-definition video content and has found widespread application in film and video game

  1. Discuss functioning of Compatibility mode, Nibble mode and EPP mode in parallel port.

Ans 6.

Parallel Port: Modes of Operation

The parallel port, often referred to as the printer port or LPT (Line Print Terminal), is a type of interface commonly used for connecting printers and other peripheral devices to a computer. Over the years, as the need for faster data transfer and more versatile communication increased, various modes of operation were introduced for the parallel port. Among these are the Compatibility mode, Nibble mode, and EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) mode. Let’s delve into the

unication suitable for a wide range of devices.

 

SESSION AUGUST 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (BCA)
SEMESTER V
COURSE CODE & NAME DCA3142 / GRAPHICS AND MULTIMEDIA
CREDITS 4
NUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & MARKS 02

30 MARKS EACH

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

  1. Discuss DDA and Bresenham’s algorithm with suitable example. 5+5

Ans 1.

Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) Algorithm

The Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) is a scan-conversion method used in computer graphics for drawing a straight line. It’s a straightforward method based on linear interpolation.

 

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  1. Explain in detail all types of 2D transformations. 10

Ans 2.

Two-dimensional (2D) transformations are fundamental operations in computer graphics and computer-aided design (CAD) that allow you to manipulate the position, size, and orientation of 2D objects. There are several types of 2D transformations, each serving a specific purpose. Let’s explore them in detail:

  1. Translation: Translation is the simplest 2D transformation, involving the movement of an object from one position to another. It is defined by two parameters: the amount of horizontal (dx) and vertical (dy) displacement. The new coordinates of a point (x, y) after translation are (x + dx, y + dy).
  2. Rotation: Rotation transforms an object by a certain angle θ about a fixed point called the center of rotation. This

 

  1. What is Two-dimensional viewing algorithm? Discuss the polygon clipping algorithm. 5+5

Ans 3.

Two-dimensional viewing algorithms are essential in computer graphics and computer-aided design (CAD) to determine which parts of a two-dimensional scene or image should be displayed on a screen or output device. These algorithms help in efficiently rendering complex scenes and handling various geometric primitives such as polygons, lines, and points. One important aspect of two-dimensional viewing algorithms is polygon clipping, which is

Assignment Set – 2

 

  1. What are Bezier curve and B-Spline curves? Write a detailed note on them. 5

Ans 4.

Bezier Curve:

A Bezier curve is a mathematical curve that is widely used in computer graphics, animation, and CAD (Computer-Aided Design) applications for defining and representing smooth, curved paths. Bezier curves are named after the French engineer Pierre Bézier, who developed them in the 1960s

  1. Write a detailed note on Light and Color models. 10

Ans 5.

Light Models:

In computer graphics and computer-generated imagery (CGI), light models are used to simulate the behavior of light and how it interacts with objects in a virtual scene. These models are essential for creating realistic and visually appealing 3D graphics. There are several light models, each designed to capture different aspects of how light behaves in the real world. Here are some common light models:

 

 

  1. Elaborate on the role of animation in Multimedia and also discuss Morphing. 10

Ans 6.

Role of Animation in Multimedia:

Animation plays a pivotal role in multimedia, enhancing the overall user experience and enabling the effective communication of information and ideas. In multimedia, which encompasses various media types like text, images, audio, and video, animation brings

 

Bcom 1st Sem Sep 2023 Solved Assignments

SESSION AUG/SEP 2023
PROGRAM B.Com
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DCM1101 – General ENglish
CREDITS 4

Set – 1

Assignment- 1st

  1. Illustrate all the different types of Tenses. Give examples.

Ans: INDEFINITEVerb + s/ es

  • He goes to school.
  • They go to school.
  • He does his work well.
  • They do their work well

Verb + ed or an irregular form

  • He

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  1. Definethe following and also give examples for each:
  2. Noun
  3. Pronoun
  4. Conjunction
  5. Preposition
  6. Interjection

Ans:

  1. a) Noun:

Definition: A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea.

Example: “dog,” “city,” “happiness,” “book.”

  1. b) Pronoun:

 

  1. Explain the meaning of the following using examples:
  2. Jargons
  3. Metaphors
  4. Slangs
  5. Clichés
  6. Prewriting phase

Ans: a) Jargons: 

Meaning: Jargon refers to specialized language or terminology used by a particular group or profession. It consists of words or expressions that are not easily understood by those outside of the specific group.

Example: In the field

Set – 1

Assignment- 2nd

  1. Convert the below given sentences from Active Voice to Passive Voice:
  2. Have you finished the report?
  3. She has written a novel.
  • The police have caught the thief.
  1. The tiger was chasing the deer.
  2. She has learned her lessons.

 

Ans:

  1. Has the report been finished by you?
  1. A

 

  1. Illustrate the steps of making a flash card choosing any word of your choice. You may use diagrams.

Ans: Flash Cards: Flash cards are an excellent method of reviewing both old and new vocabulary words. Not only are they the best way to learn vocabulary, you may also use them in other ways. For example, key ideas may be written out and reviewed. In addition, declensions such as the article can be put on a card for easy reviewing. These types of cards will

  1. Explain the following (You may use examples and diagrams wherever applicable):
  2. Homonyms
  3. Idioms
  4. Dictionary
  5. Thesaurus
  6. Rote Learning

Ans: a) Homonyms: 

Meaning: Homonyms are words that have the same spelling or pronunciation but different meanings.

They can be classified into two types:

Homophones (same sound) and homographs (same spelling).

Example:

SESSION SEPTEMBER 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR of commerce (B.com.)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DCM 1102– Economic theory
CREDITS 4

Assignment Set – 1st

Questions

 

  1. What is utility? Examine the importance of law of diminishing marginal utility in demand analysis.

Ans: The start of utility analysis is with the initial utility that is derived from the number of units of utility gained by a consumer by consuming certain good or service during a particular period. The higher the total utility of the consumer, the greater would be the satisfaction level of the consumer. Total utility measures the total satisfaction of wants and needs which are generated from consumption or usage of a good or service.

Utility, in economics, refers to the satisfaction or

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  1. Write a note on factors affecting supply along with suitable examples.

Ans:FACTORS AFFECTING SUPPLY 

Many important factors are involved in establishing the supply of a product or service. Any  kind of change in any of these factors will have an impact on the supply of the product and  can result in a change in the supply of the product also increases. Apart from this, the prices of other goods, that is, the substitute and complementary goods also have an

 

  1. Elucidate the concept of isoquants. Also discuss their types.

Ans:An isoquant is a locus of points that represent the different technically efficient ways of combining the factors of production for producing a fixed level of output. Isoquant term is taken from a Greek word ‘iso’ which implies ‘equal’ and ‘quantus’ that means ‘quantity’. The  isoquant curve is known as the ‘equal product curve’ or production indifference curve. An isoquant curve presents the locus of points which indicates various combinations of two inputs – capital and labour, producing a specific quantity of output

Assignment Set – 2nd

Questions

 

  1. Define monopolistic competition and explain the price determination under it.

Ans:MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION

A monopolistic competition market is a kind of market system that has the combination of a monopoly and perfect competition markets. In the monopolistic competitive market system, many firms or sellers offer the same products, but they are not the perfect substitutes. There are several competitors in the market, but the main point is that each competitor is differentiated from each other in

 

  1. Critically analyze the subsistence theory of wage determination.

Ans:The subsistence theory of wage determination is an economic theory that suggests that wages tend to gravitate towards the minimum level required to sustain the life and reproduction of the labor force.

This theory has historical roots and has been criticized

 

  1. Examine the concept of ‘Paradox of thrift’.

Ans:PARADOX OF THRIFT

The paradox of thrift was a concept put forward by economist John Maynard Keynes and he believed that people normally try to save more during the period of economic recession. This results in the fall of aggregate demand and eventually leads to a decrease in the economic growth of the country.

These situations

 

SESSION Aug – 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR of Commerce (BCom)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DCM1103 – Fundamentals of Accounting I
CREDITS 4

Assignment Set – 1

Questions

 

  1. Ananth is a trader dealing in textiles. For the following transactions, pass journal entries for the month of January, 2018.

Jan. 

  1. Commenced business with cash ₹. 70,000
  2. Purchased goods from X and Co. on credit ₹. 30,000
  3. Cash deposited into bank ₹. 40,000.
  4. Bought a building from L and Co. on credit ₹.95, 000
  5. Cash withdrawn from bank for office use ₹.5, 000

Solution: To record the transactions in the journal, we’ll use the double-entry accounting system.

Each transaction involves at least two accounts, with debits and credits being equal.

Here are the journal entries for the given transactions:-

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  1. A. Explain the different types of cash book.

Ans: A cash book is a financial journal that records all cash transactions of a business, including both cash receipts and cash payments. It is a subsidiary ledger to the general ledger and serves as a primary accounting record for cash management. There are several types of cash books, each designed to meet specific accounting and business needs.

The main

 

  1. Explain the accounting concepts and conventions.

Answer:

Accounting concepts and conventions are fundamental guidelines that underpin the practice of financial accounting. These principles ensure consistency, reliability, and comparability of financial statements. Here’s an overview of some key accounting concepts and conventions:

  1. Accrual Concept: This concept is about recording financial transactions when they actually occur, not necessarily when cash changes hands. For example, if you perform a service in December but don’t get paid until January, you still record the income in December. This helps in understanding the actual performance of a business during a specific period.

Going Concern Concept: This assumes that a business will continue its operations into the foreseeable future

 

Assignment Set – 2

Questions

  1. XYZ Ltd. maintains a current account with the Syndicate Bank of India. As on 31st March 2006, the bank column of its cashbook showed a debit balance of Rs.20,000. However, the bank statement showed a different balance on that date. The following are the reasons for such a difference:
  2. Cheque deposited but not yet credited by the bank 3,000
  3. Cheque issued but not yet presented 2,000
  4. Bank charges 3,000
  5. Cheques received by the bank directly 7,000
  6. Insurance premium paid by the bank as per standing instructions not yet intimated 2,000

 

Prepare bank reconciliation statement and find out the balance as per the bank statement.

Solution: – To reconcile the difference between the bank column of the cashbook and the bank statement, we need to prepare a Bank Reconciliation Statement.

Here are the steps: 

XYZ Ltd.

Bank

  1. Define Depreciation.

State the Causes of depreciation

Justify why to record the depreciation.

Ans: “Depreciation”. Depreciation means a fall in the quality, quantity or value of an asset. Depreciation is considered as an expense and is shown in the Profit and Loss account or Income and Expenditure statement under expenses. It is the allocation of the cost of the fixed asset (capital expenditure) to the period of its use.

Causes for Depreciation

The factors that cause depreciation are

 

 

  1. Given below are the balances extracted from the books of Nagarajan as on 31st March, 2016.
Particulars Rs. Particulars Rs.
Purchases 10,000 Sales 15,100
Wages 600 Commission received 1,900
Freight inwards 750 Rent received 600
Advertisement 500 Creditors 2,400
Carriage outwards 400 Capital 5,000
Cash 1,200
Machinery 8,000
Debtors 2,250
Bills receivable 300
Stock on 1st January, 2016 1,000
25,000 25,000

 

Prepare the trading and profit and loss account for the year ended 31st March, 2016 and the balance sheet as on that date after adjusting the following:

(a) Commission received in advance Rs. 400

(b) Advertisement paid in advance Rs. 150

(c) Wages outstanding Rs. 200

(d) Closing stock on 31st March 2016, Rs. 2,100

Solution: Let’s prepare the trading and profit and loss account and the balance sheet for Nagarajan

SESSION AUG 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR OF COMMERCE(B.COM)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME DCM1104 –BUSINESS ORGANISATION
CREDITS 4
NUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS &

MARKS

02

30 Marks each

Assignment Set – 1st

Questions

  1. “Business is a system of its environment”. Discuss the statement and discuss the working of the business system.

Ans:The statement “Business is a system of its environment” emphasizes the interconnectedness and interdependence between a business and its external environment. The environment in which a business operates plays a crucial role in shaping its activities, strategies, and overall functioning.

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  1. Examine the elements that should be considered while assessing the suitability of a business location.

Ans:

Selecting a suitable business location is a critical decision that can significantly impact a company’s success. Several elements should be carefully assessed to determine the appropriateness of a business location.

 

Here are key factors to consider: 

 

Demographics: 

 

Population Density:

 

 

  1. Define “Entrepreneurship”. Explain the main characteristics of an entrepreneur in detail.

Ans: The word ‘entrepreneur’ immediately brings to mind the images of business tycoons like L.N. Mittal or Bill Gates. While these rich, famous and successful individuals can be inspirational for some, most of us would find it difficult to associate our own lives, personalities or abilities with them. But the fact is that virtually everybody is entrepreneurial in some part of his or

Assignment Set – 2nd

Questions

  1. Elaborate the various causes behind the formation of business combinations.

Ans: Business combinations, also known as mergers and acquisitions (M&A), occur when two or more businesses join forces to create a single entity or when one business acquires another. Several factors and motivations drive the formation of business combinations.

 

Here are various causes behind the formation of business combinations:

 

Economies of Scale: Combining resources and operations often leads to economies of scale, resulting in cost

  1. Explain the procedure for formation of a company.

 

Ans: The whole process of formation of a company may be roughly divided, for convenience, into three parts.

 

These are:

(i) Promotion;

(ii) Registration and

(iii) Floatation.

 

Promotion is a term of expressing the preliminary steps taken for the purpose of registration and floatation of the company. The persons who assume the task of promotion are called promoters. The promoter may be an individual, a firm, an association of persons, partnership or company

 

  1. Write short notes on the following:

 

  1. a) Consumer Protection Act, 2019

 

Ans:As of my last knowledge update in January 2022, the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, is a comprehensive legislation enacted in India to strengthen consumer protection mechanisms and address emerging challenges in the market. The Act was signed into law on August 9, 2019, and it came into effect from July 20, 2020.

An individual consumer

 

SESSION AUGUST 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR OF COMMERCE (BCOM)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME DCM1105 – PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS

MANAGEMENT

CREDITS 4
NUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS &

MARKS

02

30 Marks each

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

  1. Define manager. Describe the characteristics of the manager. 10

Ans 1.

Manager

A manager is an individual within an organization who is responsible for planning, organizing, coordinating, and overseeing various activities and resources to achieve specific goals and objectives. Managers play a pivotal role in the success of an organization by making critical decisions, setting direction, and ensuring that the organization’s resources are used efficiently and effectively.

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  1. Discuss the characteristics of Planning in an organization. 10

Ans 2.

Characteristics of Planning in an Organization

Planning is a fundamental management function that involves setting objectives, determining the courses of action required to achieve those objectives, and making decisions to allocate resources effectively. Effective planning is critical for an organization’s success, and it exhibits several key characteristics:

Goal-Oriented: Planning always starts with the establishment of clear and specific goals. These goals provide direction and purpose for the organization and serve as the foundation for all planning activities.

Future-Focused:

  1. Differentiate between Formal and Informal organization. 10

Ans 3.

Formal Organization vs. Informal Organization

Formal and informal organizations are two distinct aspects of how people interact within an organization. They differ in terms of structure, purpose, communication, and hierarchy. Let’s explore the key differences between formal and informal organizations:

Formal

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 2

  1. Explain the characteristics of MBO (Management by Objectives). 10

Ans 4.

Management by Objectives (MBO) is a management approach that emphasizes setting clear, specific, and measurable objectives and then using these objectives to guide and evaluate the performance of individuals and teams within an organization. Developed by management theorist Peter Drucker in the mid-20th century, MBO has several key characteristics that make it an effective management tool:

Goal Setting: The

  1. Discuss the steps in staffing process in an organization. 10

Ans 5.

The staffing process in an organization involves identifying, attracting, selecting, and retaining qualified individuals to fill various positions within the organization. It is a crucial component of human resource management that ensures the right people are in the right roles. Here are the typical steps in the staffing process:

Human

 

  1. Explain the characteristics and qualities of Leadership. 10

Ans 6.

Characteristics and Qualities of Leadership

Leadership is a complex and multifaceted concept that involves guiding and inspiring individuals or groups toward the achievement of common goals. Effective leadership requires a combination of characteristics and qualities that enable individuals to influence and motivate others. Here are some key characteristics and qualities of leadership:

Vision: Leaders

BBA 4th Sem 2023 Solved Assignments Sep 2023

SESSION SEP/OCT 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA)
SEMESTER IV
COURSE CODE & NAME DBB2205 – INTERNATIONAL MARKETING
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. Explain the concept of International Marketing. Also, to detail difference between Domestic and International Marketing, add suitable examples to support your answer. 4+6

Ans 1.

International marketing refers to the practice of marketing principles applied across national borders. It involves the planning, promoting, distributing, and selling of a company’s goods or services in global markets. The essence of international marketing is to recognize and understand the differences in consumer preferences, buying behaviors, and cultural nuances across different countries and regions. It also involves adapting marketing strategies to suit these varied environments while maintaining the Its Half solved only

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Top of Form

  1. Write a detailed note on Economic Environment to International Marketing. Also, to discuss constituents of Economic Environment in detail. 3+7

Ans 2.

The economic environment is a critical factor in international marketing, as it encompasses all the economic factors in the market environment that impact marketing management decisions. When a company decides to enter a new international market, understanding and adapting to the economic environment of that market is essential for success. This note will discuss the constituents of the economic environment in detail.

  1. Market Structures:
  1. Detailed the concept of Sampling. Further to explain the various methods of Sampling, include suitable examples to support your answer. 2+8 10

Ans 3.

Sampling is a fundamental concept in statistics, research, and data analysis. It involves selecting a subset of individuals, items, or observations from a larger population to make inferences or draw conclusions about that population. The effectiveness of sampling hinges on the principle that a properly chosen sample can provide a good representation of the entire population, allowing for accurate and efficient analysis without the need to examine every member of the

Assignment Set – 2

 

  1. Discuss theconcept of Packaging & Labelling, while explaining the functions and importance of Packaging. 10

Ans 4.

Packaging and labeling are crucial components in the marketing and distribution of products. They serve multiple functions beyond just containing and identifying the products. This essay explores these functions and the importance of packaging in the contemporary market.

Essential Functions

 

  1. Explain the concepts of Personal Selling. Detail the importance, advantages, and disadvantages of Personal Selling. 3+7

Ans 5.

Personal selling, a vital component of the marketing mix, is a face-to-face selling technique in which a salesperson uses skills and techniques to build personal relationships with potential customers. This method is particularly effective for complex, high-value products and services where customer needs are unique and require detailed explanation or customization.

Importance of

  1. Write a detailed note on Exporting along with its types while explaining its advantages and disadvantages, include suitable examples to support your answer. 10

Ans 6.

Exporting refers to the process of sending goods or services from one country to another for sale or trade. It is a crucial part of international trade and is a primary source of revenue for many countries. Exporting can be classified into two main types: direct and indirect exporting.

Direct

SESSION NOVEMBER 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA)
SEMESTER IV
COURSE CODE & NAME DBB2204 – ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

           

 

  1. What is the role of water cycle in our ecosystem? Explain how it affects ecology and society? 5+5

Ans 1.

The water cycle plays a pivotal role in our ecosystem, impacting both ecology and society in profound ways. This cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle, is the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth. It involves several key processes: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, and subsurface flow. Each of these processes is crucial in maintaining the balance and health of our ecosystems and directly or indirectly affects human society.

Impact on

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  1. What is sustainable development? Explain the three principles of Sustainability with two examples. 5+5

Ans 2.

Sustainable development is a holistic approach to progress that seeks to balance environmental, social, and economic needs to ensure a healthy, viable, and equitable society for present and future generations. It is rooted in the understanding that development must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Three Principles of Sustainability

  1. Describe the Spheres of Earth and their properties. 10

Ans 3.

The Earth is composed of several distinct layers, each with unique properties and functions. These layers are typically divided into the following:

  1. Crust: The Earth’s crust is the outermost layer, varying in thickness from about 5 kilometers under the oceans (oceanic crust) to about 70 kilometers under the continents (continental crust). It is primarily made up of light elements like silicon, oxygen, aluminum, and calcium. The crust is solid and brittle, making it prone to fracturing,

Assignment Set – 2

  1. Define air pollution and effects of air pollution with examples. 10

Ans 4.

Air pollution refers to the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to living beings or the environment. These pollutants can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases, and they can be natural or man-made. The effects of air pollution are far-reaching and can impact both health and the environment in various ways.

Health Effects

 

 

  1. State the consequences of soil pollution on future generations and suggest control measures. 10

Ans 5.

Soil pollution, a critical environmental issue, has far-reaching consequences on future generations and requires effective control measures to mitigate its impact.

Consequences on Future Generations:

  1. Health

 

 

  1. Define solid waste. List the types of solid waste. Come up with a plan for management of solid wastes. 3+3+4

Ans 6.

Solid waste refers to any discarded or abandoned material. This encompasses a wide range of substances discarded by households, industries, and other entities. It includes materials that are not liquid or gaseous and can be classified based on their origin and composition.

Types of Solid

SESSION November 2023
PROGRAM BBA
SEMESTER IV
course CODE & NAME Dbb2203 – MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
   
   

 

 

Set – 1

 

 

  1. Describe the primary functions and objectives of budgetary control. Provide specific examples to illustrate each function. 10

 

Ans 1.

Budgetary control is a critical management tool for guiding a business towards its financial and operational goals. Its primary functions and objectives can be outlined as follows:

Planning: Budgetary control begins with planning, where financial targets for various departments or sectors within an organization are established. This involves setting goals for revenue, expenditures, production levels, and other financial metrics. For example, a retail company might set a budget for sales targets and inventory purchases for the Its Half solved only

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  1. Company XYZ has budgeted the following production costs for the upcoming quarter:

Direct Materials: $50,000

Direct Labor: $30,000

Factory Overhead: $20,000

Calculate the total standard cost for production. If the actual production costs turn out to be $100,000, determine the budget variance and analyze its implications.        10

 

Ans 2.

To understand the total standard cost for production and the implications of a budget variance for Company XYZ, let’s break down the components and calculations involved.

Total Standard Cost Calculation

Company XYZ’s production costs for the upcoming quarter are divided into three main categories: Direct Materials, Direct Labor, and Factory Overhead. The costs for each category are as follows:

  • Direct Materials: $50,
  1. Imagine you are a financial analyst in a manufacturing company. Develop a detailed budget for the upcoming fiscal year, considering various factors such as sales forecasts, production costs, and overhead expenses. 10

Ans 3.

Developing a detailed budget for the upcoming fiscal year as a financial analyst in a manufacturing company involves a multi-faceted approach, focusing on key areas such as sales forecasts, production costs, and overhead expenses. The following plan outlines the necessary steps and considerations:

  1. Sales Forecasting: The foundation of the budget is the sales forecast. Begin by analyzing historical sales data, market trends, and economic indicators. Consider factors like seasonality, market demand, and potential new product launches. Predict the expected units

 

SET – 2

 

  1. A manufacturing company sets a standard labor cost of $15 per hour for producing a product. During a particular month, the actual labor hours worked were 2,000 hours, and the actual labor cost incurred was $30,000. Calculate the labor rate variance and the labor efficiency variance. Interpret the results and provide recommendations for improvement. 10

Ans 1.

To analyze the labor cost variances of the manufacturing company, let’s first understand what labor rate and labor efficiency variances are. Labor Rate Variance focuses on the difference between the actual hourly wage paid and the standard hourly wage set by the company. Labor Efficiency Variance, on the other hand, looks at the difference in the amount of labor time actually used

  1. Company ABC has the following financial data:

Current Assets: $200,000

Current Liabilities: $120,000

Inventory: $80,000

Accounts Receivable: $60,000

Accounts Payable: $40,000

Calculate the company’s working capital, current ratio, and quick ratio. Analyze these ratios and provide insights into the company’s liquidity position.        10       

 

Ans 2.

To analyze the financial health of Company ABC, we’ll focus on three key metrics: working capital, current ratio, and quick ratio. These metrics are crucial in understanding the company’s liquidity and its ability to meet short-term obligations.

Working Capital Working capital is calculated as the difference between a company’s current assets and its current liabilities. It’s a measure of a company’s operational efficiency and its short-term

  1. Assess the effectiveness of ratio analysis in evaluating a company’s financial performance. Discuss the limitations of using ratios and suggest alternative financial analysis tools that can complement or overcome these limitations. 10

 

Ans 3.

Ratio analysis is a widely used tool for evaluating a company’s financial performance, offering several advantages but also facing certain limitations. To complement or overcome these limitations, other financial analysis tools can be employed.

Effectiveness of Ratio

 

SESSION NOV 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA)
SEMESTER IV
COURSE CODE & NAME DBB2202 -MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

  1. Explain how MIS controls the Information in an organization. 10

Ans 1.

Management Information Systems (MIS) play a critical role in controlling information within an organization. This control is exercised through various mechanisms and strategies that ensure efficient handling, processing, and dissemination of information. In this discussion, we will explore how MIS controls information in an organization in a comprehensive manner.

 

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  1. Explain the steps in the decision-making process in detail . 10

Ans 2.

The decision-making process is a crucial aspect of problem-solving and strategic planning in both personal and professional contexts. It involves a series of steps that guide an individual or a group to arrive at a thoughtful and informed decision. While this process can vary depending on the complexity of the decision and the context, there are commonly accepted steps that are followed. Here’s a

Top of Form

  1. Explain what is meant by BPR. What is its significance? 10

Ans 3.

Bayesian Personalized Ranking (BPR) is a machine learning algorithm used primarily in the field of recommender systems. It’s a framework designed for building and evaluating the performance of recommendation engines, especially those dealing with implicit feedback data (like user clicks, views, or purchases) rather than explicit feedback (like ratings or reviews).

Understanding

Assignment Set – 2

 

 

  1. Explain the applications and systems used in e-communication. 10

Ans 4.

Electronic communication, or e-communication, refers to the methods of communication via electronic means, often through the internet. This field has evolved rapidly, especially in the last few decades, leading to a plethora of applications and systems that facilitate a wide range of communication needs.

  1. Email
  1. Explain different types of Decision Support Systems. 10

Ans 5.

Decision Support Systems (DSS) are interactive software-based systems designed to assist decision-makers in compiling useful information from raw data, documents, personal knowledge, or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. While these systems vary widely in their applications and complexities, they can be broadly classified into five

  1. Explain the various security hazards faced by an information system. 10

Ans 6.

Information systems, integral to modern organizations, face various security hazards. These risks can be broadly categorized into external threats, internal threats, and technical vulnerabilities. Understanding and mitigating these risks is crucial for ensuring the integrity, confidentiality, and

SESSION November 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR of business administration (BBA)
SEMESTER IV
course CODE & NAME DBB2201-Business Strategy
   
   

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. Define business strategy and explain its significance in the context of organizational success. Provide an example to illustrate the practical application of business strategy. 5+5

Ans 1.

Business strategy refers to the set of actions and decisions that a business undertakes in order to achieve its business goals and be competitive in its industry. It is a plan that guides the company in fulfilling its vision, mission, and objectives, and it outlines how the business will perform in terms of its customers, competitors, and environment. The significance of business strategy cannot be overstated, as it is Its Half solved only

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  1. Define business policy and elaborate on its components. How does business policy differ from operational decisions within an organization? Support your answer with relevant examples. 4+6

Ans 2.

Business policy is a crucial aspect of organizational management that defines the broad guidelines and framework within which a company operates. It encompasses the vision, mission, and core values of an organization, providing a roadmap for its strategic direction and decision-making processes. Business policy is designed to align the company’s operations with its overarching goals

  1. Discuss Michael Porter’s analysis. 10

Ans 3.

Michael Porter’s analysis, particularly his Five Forces Framework, is a cornerstone in the field of strategic management and business analysis. His approach provides a structured and comprehensive way to look at the competitive forces that shape every industry, and thereby helps businesses to identify their strengths and weaknesses relative to their competition. Below is a discussion of Porter’s analysis, broken down into key com

 

Assignment Set – 2

 

  1. Explain the significance of strategy formulation in the overall strategic management process. Discuss how effective strategy formulation contributes to an organization’s competitive advantage and long-term success. 6+4

Ans 4.

Strategy formulation is a pivotal component in the overall strategic management process, serving as the bedrock upon which organizations build their path to success. It involves the careful analysis and decision-making regarding the best courses of action that an organization can take to achieve its goals and objectives. This intricate process is not just about plotting a direction for the company but also about ensuring that it maintains a competitive edge in a constantly evolving

  1. What do you mean by strategy implementation? What are the important issues involved in it. 4+6

Ans 5.

Strategy implementation refers to the process through which an organization turns its strategic plans into actions to achieve its objectives. This process is critical because even the most well-thought-out strategies can fail if they are not implemented properly. The effectiveness of strategy implementation is determined by how well the chosen strategies are executed within the organization’s structure and culture, and how they respond to external factors.

Key Issues in Strategy

  1. Explain the concept of strategic leadership and its pivotal role in the success of modern organizations. Discuss how strategic leadership goes beyond traditional leadership by integrating a forward-thinking, long-term perspective. 3+7

Ans 6.

Strategic leadership is a multifaceted approach to guiding an organization towards its long-term goals and visions. Unlike traditional leadership, which often focuses on managing day-to-day operations and solving immediate problems, strategic leadership emphasizes a forward-thinking, long-term perspective. This approach is increasingly crucial in the dynamic and competitive environment of modern organizations.

The Essence

BA 1st SEM SEP 2023 Solved Assignments

SESSION SEPTEMBER 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR OF ARTS
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME OBAC101 NATURAL SCIENCE
   
   

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

  1. List five chemicals that you find  in  your  house, which may find use in the kitchen/wardrobe/bathroom/ utility area, on a daily  basis. Please provide the chemical composition of each of these five agents, and list two uses of each of them.

 

Ans 1.

Here are five common household chemicals, along with their chemical compositions and two uses each:

 

  1. Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) – NaHCO₃

Chemical Composition: Sodium bicarbonate consists of sodium (Na), hydrogen (H), carbon (C), and oxygen (O) atoms, specifically forming the Its Half solved only

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  1. Classify Consumer products. List five characteristics of each type.

 

Ans 2.

Classify Consumer products

Classifying consumer products can be broadly done into four types: convenience products, shopping products, specialty products, and unsought products. Each of these categories has distinct characteristics that define them and influence consumer behavior.

Convenience products

Convenience products are those that are frequently purchased and require minimal effort and time from the

  1. Classify pesticides based   on   source,   chemical composition, mode of entry, type of target pests, and mechanism   of   action.   Please   supplement   your answer with two examples under each class.     

Ans 3.

Pesticides, integral in managing pest populations in agriculture and public health, can be classified based on various criteria such as source, chemical composition, mode of entry, type of target pests, and mechanism of action. Each classification offers a different perspective on how these substances interact with their environment and target organisms.

Starting with the source, pesticides are broadly

 

Assignment Set – 2

 

 

  1. A. Write a brief note in about 200 words on the five food types that result in a Balanced diet.
  2. Bring out the relationship between Nutrition and Brain Health, as well as Nutrition and Gut Health. 5+2.5 +2.5 10

Ans 4.

  1. Balanced Diet: The Five Essential Food Types

A balanced diet is pivotal for maintaining overall health and well-being. It involves consuming a variety of foods in the right proportions, ensuring the body receives all necessary nutrients. Here are the five essential food types that constitute a balanced diet:

  1. Fruits and Vegetables: These are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fiber. They help in maintaining a
  1. A. List and explain methods of creating Genetically modified crops.
  2. Justify the need for growing GMO crops for human and animal consumption 5+2.5+2.5

Ans 5.

Genetically modified (GM) crops are created through a process where the genetic makeup of a plant is altered to introduce new traits or enhance existing ones. This is achieved through several methods:

  1. Transgenic
  2.  

6.A.Write a note on Distance Medical Technology-what it is, its advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Bring out examples of the application of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare. List Advantages and Disadvantages with examples. 5+5 10

Ans 6.

Distance Medical Technology, also known as Telemedicine, refers to the use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide clinical health care from a distance. This field has evolved rapidly with advancements in technology, offering new and innovative ways to deliver medical care.

Distance Medical Technology

Distance Medical Technology enables healthcare professionals to evaluate, diagnose, and treat patients remotely using telecommunications technology. This approach is especially useful in regions

 

SESSION SEPTEMBE 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR OF ARTS (ENGLISH)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE OBAC 102– COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH
& NAME
   
   

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

 

                                   

  1. What is communication? Explain Shannon- Weaver’s model of communication 6+4

 

Ans 1.


Communication

Communication is a complex process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings, and messages. It is a fundamental aspect of human interaction that enables individuals and groups to convey their intentions, express emotions, share knowledge, and build relationships. Communication can occur through various mediums, including spoken and written language, non-verbal cues like body language and facial expressions, and technological channels like the

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  1. Discuss Aristotle’s model of communication 10

 

Ans 2.

Aristotle’s model of communication, one of the earliest communication models, is fundamentally rooted in the art of rhetoric. This model, developed by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, is a speaker-centered framework that focuses on the elements essential for effective communication. Unlike modern communication models that often emphasize the roles of both the

 

  1. What are the features of Maxwell mode of communication? 10

           

Ans 3.                                    

 

Maxwell mode of communication, named after the renowned physicist James Clerk Maxwell, embodies a set of principles and methodologies that reflect Maxwell’s approach to scientific inquiry and communication. It’s not a formally established mode of communication in the traditional sense, but rather a conceptual framework inspired by Maxwell’s work and methodologies. Here are some key features of this approach, discussed in detail:

  1. Empirical and

Assignment Set – 2

 

 

 

 

  1. Discuss the impediments to effective listening 10

 

Ans 1.

Effective listening is an essential skill in communication, yet various impediments can hinder its effectiveness. Understanding these barriers is crucial for improving communication in personal, academic, and professional settings.

  1. Psychological Barriers: One of the primary hindrances to effective listening is psychological barriers. These include preconceived notions, biases, and prejudices that we hold about the speaker or the subject matter. When we approach a conversation with a closed mind or judgmental attitude, we’re less likely to fully comprehend or value the other person’s perspective. This selective listening leads to misunderstandings and a lack of genuine
  1. Discuss any five types of interviews. 10

 

Ans 2.

Interviews are a fundamental part of human interaction and are used extensively in various fields such as journalism, human resources, research, and law enforcement. While there are numerous types of interviews, each with its own purpose and methodology, we will discuss five significant types: structured, unstructured, semi-structured, behavioral, and stress

  1. What are the features of a good presentation? 10

 

Ans 3.

A good presentation is an art form that combines various elements to engage, inform, and persuade an audience. While there are many factors that can contribute to the effectiveness of a presentation, here are some key features:

Clear Objective: Every great presentation has a clear purpose or objective. Whether it’s to inform, persuade, entertain, or a combination of these, knowing the objective shapes all aspects

 

SESSION SEPTEMBER 2023
PROGRAM BACHELORS OF ARTS -(BA ENGLISH)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE OBAE111- INDIAN ENGLISH LITERATURE
& NAME
   
   

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

  1. Discuss the character sketch of the astrologer in RK Narayan’s An Astrologer’s Day, with reference to his round character. 10

 

Ans 1.

To discuss the character sketch of the astrologer in R.K. Narayan’s “An Astrologer’s Day,” it’s essential to focus on the aspects that contribute to his round character. This means we will delve into his complexity, development, and the subtleties that make him a fully fleshed-out character, rather than just a flat, Its Half solved only

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  1. Explain the various Animal-Human relationships that Ruskin Bond implies in his novella the Grandfather’s Zoo 10

Ans 2.

Ruskin Bond, through his novella “The Grandfather’s Zoo,” offers a charming and insightful exploration into the multifaceted relationships between animals and humans. This narrative, woven with simplicity and warmth, reflects on various dimensions of these relationships, ranging from companionship and mutual respect to the broader themes of coexistence and interdependence.

Companionship and Emotional Bonding: At the heart of Bond’s storytelling lies the theme of company

Top of Form

  1. How does Kamala Das portray the plight of women in a patriarchal   society   in   her   poem   ‘The Introduction’?           10

Ans 3.

Kamala Das’s poem “The Introduction” is a profound exploration of the plight of women in a patriarchal society. The poem is a candid reflection of her personal experiences and observations, effectively portraying the challenges and constraints faced by women.

At the outset, Das confronts the issue of identity, a central theme in the poem. The poetess struggles with the societal expectations imposed upon her, questioning the prescribed roles and behaviors. She writes, “I am Indian, very brown,

 

Assignment Set – 2

 

 

  1. Give a critical analysis of the poem ‘Small Scale Reflections on a Great House’ by A.K Ramanujan with a special reference to culture and heritage in his poem. 10

 

Ans 1.

“Small Scale Reflections on a Great House” by A.K Ramanujan is a profound exploration of the themes of culture and heritage. The poem, rich in its imagery and intricate in its structure, serves as a metaphorical representation of the decay and dilapidation of traditional values and structures in a rapidly changing world. Ramanujan, known for his ability to weave together the personal and the

  1. Give a detailed critical analysis of Munshi’s essay, “The Spiritual Basis of the Satyagraha”. 10

 

Ans 2.

Munshi’s essay “The Spiritual Basis of the Satyagraha” delves into the philosophical and spiritual underpinnings of the Satyagraha movement, a form of non-violent resistance pioneered by Mahatma Gandhi. The essay is a profound exploration of how spiritual beliefs and moral principles can drive social and political change.

At the core of Munshi’s argument is the idea that Satyagraha is not merely a political strategy, but a holistic approach to life that

 

  1. Give a critical appreciation of the Sarojini Naidu’s The Palanquin Bearers. 10

 

Ans 3.

Sarojini Naidu’s poem “The Palanquin Bearers” is a lyrical piece that beautifully captures the essence of Indian culture and tradition through its vivid imagery and rhythmic quality. The poem is a part of Naidu’s collection titled “The Golden Threshold,” published in 1905, which is celebrated for its rich exploration of Indian themes and landscapes. “The Palanquin Bearers” stands out as a particularly evocative piece, weaving together the physical and the emotional,

SESSION SEPTEMBER 2023
PROGRAM POLITICAL SCIENCE (BA)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME OBAP112- FOUNDATION OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
   
   

 

 

 

Assignment Set -I

 

 

  1. Assess the  Scope  and  Significance  of  Political Science. Briefly highlight relationship of Political Science with other Social Sciences.    5+5      10

Ans 1.

Political science, as a discipline, examines the theory and practice of politics and governance, encompassing the study of political systems, political behavior, and political culture. Its scope and significance are vast, impacting various aspects of society and intersecting with other social sciences.

Scope and Significance of Political Science

  1. Understanding

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2 Define  State. Explain  the triad  nexus  between Society, State and Government. 4+6

 

Ans 2.

A state can be defined as a politically organized body of people usually occupying a definite territory, especially one that is sovereign. The concept of a state is central to political science and relates closely to the ideas of government and society, forming a triad nexus between these three elements.

The Nature of a State: At its core, a state is an entity with a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states. It possesses sovereignty, the ultimate authority within its territorial boundaries, free from external control. This sovereignty is

3 Explore  the  difference between Negative and Positive Liberty. 10

Ans 3.

Negative and Positive Liberty are two fundamental concepts in political and philosophical thought, representing different views on what it means to be free. These concepts were most famously articulated by Isaiah Berlin in his 1958 essay “Two Concepts of Liberty.”

Negative Liberty

Negative liberty is

 

Assignment Set – II

 

 

  1. Define Citizenship. Explore Marshall and Giddens view on Citizenship. 4+6

Ans 1.

Citizenship, in its broadest sense, refers to the status of being a member of a particular nation or state, encompassing both legal and social dimensions. It is not only about possessing a passport or enjoying the right to reside in a country, but also about participating in the life of that nation and fulfilling certain duties and responsibilities.

T.H. Marshall, a prominent 20th-century sociologist, had a profound influence on the conceptualization of citizenship. In Marshall’s view, citizenship is a status bestowed upon all those who

Top of Form

  1. Define Democracy. Illustrate evolution of Democracy. 4+6

Ans 2.

Democracy, derived from the Greek words “dēmos” (people) and “kratos” (power or rule), is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. It’s a political system where the majority’s decision-making power is reflected in the election of representatives and in direct participation in the political process.

Evolution of Democracy

  1. Define Globalisation. Assess the ramification of Globalisation on State Sovereignty. 4+6

 

Ans 3.

Globalization refers to the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. It’s primarily driven by international trade and investment, aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, culture, political systems, economic development and prosperity, and human physical well-being in societies around the world.

Impact of Globalization on State Sovereignty

Globalization has a profound impact on state sovereignty, which can be assessed in various dimensions:

  1. Economic
SESSION SEPTEMBER 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR OF ARTS (BA)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME OBAS113– INTRODUCTION TO
SOCIOLOGY    
   
   

 

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

  1. Discuss in detail the importance of sociology.

 

Ans 1.

Sociology, as a field of study, delves into the complexities of human society, exploring how individuals interact within societal structures and how these structures, in turn, shape human behavior and experiences. Its importance lies in several key areas:

Understanding Social Dynamics: Sociology helps us understand the intricacies of human society. It studies various aspects of social life, from family, education, and religion to law, politics, and economy. This understanding is crucial for comprehending the forces that shape our daily experiences and our place

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  1. Describe the critique of Marx’s conflict theory.

 

Ans 2.

Karl Marx’s conflict theory, a central element in his critique of capitalism and class structures, has faced various critiques over the years. One of the primary criticisms is its economic determinism. Marx posited that the economic base of a society fundamentally determines its social superstructure, including its culture, institutions, and politics. Critics argue that this perspective underestimates the role of non-economic factors like culture, religion, and individual agency in shaping society. This critique suggests that Marx’s theory overly

  1. Discuss the features of social instutions.

 

Ans 3.

Social institutions are fundamental building blocks of societies, playing a crucial role in shaping social behavior and maintaining social order. They are complex, integrated systems that establish norms and provide frameworks for social interactions, encompassing various aspects of social life such as family, education, religion, and government.

Family

Family,

Assignment Set – 2

 

 

  1. Think of a major technological advancement in recent times. Discuss how this technology has brought about social change in communities or societies.

Ans 4.

One of the most significant technological advancements in recent times is the proliferation of artificial intelligence (AI), particularly in its application through tools like machine learning and deep learning. This technology has profoundly influenced various aspects of our lives, reshaping industries, economies, and even the fabric of our societies.

At its core, AI’s ability to analyze vast amounts of data and learn from it has revolutionized many sectors. In healthcare, for example, AI-powered diagnostics can detect diseases such as cancer more accurately and

 

  1. What is ‘deviance’ in a sociological context? Give an example of a deviant behavior and discuss why it might be considered deviant in one society but not in another.

 

Ans 5.

Deviance in a sociological context refers to behaviors, actions, or beliefs that go against the norms or values of a particular social group or society. These norms and values are subjective and can vary widely from one culture or society to another. Sociologically, deviance is not defined by the act itself but by the reactions of others to the act. What is considered deviant in one society might be regarded as normal or even commendable in another, highlighting the relative nature of devianc

  1. Identify and describe  two  methods  through  which societies enforce social control. Give an example of each method in action from your own observations or experiences.

 

Ans 1.

Social control is a fundamental concept in sociology, referring to the ways in which a society tries to maintain order and regulate the behavior of its members. There are various methods through which societies enforce social control, but two particularly notable ones are the use of formal laws and regulations, and the influence of social norms and values.

Firstly, the most direct

MBA Solved assignments Aug/Sep 2023 MUJ manipal jaipur university

SESSION AUG/SEP 2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME DMBA101 – MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. Explain the concept of Planning along with various types of Planning. 3+7

Ans 1.

Planning is a fundamental management function that involves setting goals and determining the best way to achieve them. It is a systematic and organized process that helps organizations anticipate future challenges, make informed decisions, allocate resources efficiently, and achieve their objectives. Here, I will explain the concept of planning and various types of planning:

Concept of Planning: Planning is the process of defining goals and objectives and developing strategies and action plans to achieve them. It involves a systematic approach to

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  1. Define Organizing while having light on the importance of the concept. 3+7


Ans 2.

Organizing is a fundamental concept in various aspects of life, including business, personal life, and even in the context of organizing information and data. It refers to the process of arranging, structuring, and categorizing elements, resources, or information in a systematic and orderly manner to achieve specific objectives efficiently and effectively. Here, I will shed light on the importance of organizing:

  1. Efficiency: Organizing helps streamline tasks and activities. By arranging things in a logical order, you reduce wasted time and effort. In a business setting, efficient organization can lead to cost savings, increased productivity, and quicker decision-
  1. Define Controlling along with prerequisites of Effective Control. 3+7 10

Ans 3.

Controlling is one of the key functions of management that involves monitoring and regulating various organizational activities to ensure that they are in line with the predetermined goals and objectives. It is the process of comparing actual performance against predetermined standards or benchmarks and taking corrective actions when necessary to ensure that the organization is on the right track.

Prerequisites of Effective Control:

  1. Establishment of Standards: The first prerequisite of effective control is the establishment of clear and specific standards or benchmarks against which performance can

Assignment Set – 2

  1. Discuss the concept of Motivation. Explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. 2+8
    Ans 4.

Motivation: Concept and Overview

Motivation can be defined as the inner drive or force that propels individuals toward the achievement of a goal. It is what stimulates and directs behavior, providing a reason to act in a particular manner. Originating from the Latin word ‘movere’, which means ‘to move’, motivation is the combination of cognitive, social, emotional, and biological factors that activate and sustain certain behaviors. Everyone possesses some form of motivation, which

  1. Discuss the concept of ‘Team’. Also discuss seventeen characteristics of an Effective Team. 2+8

Ans 5.

Concept of ‘Team’

A team can be understood as a cohesive group of individuals who come together to achieve a shared goal or purpose. In organizational contexts, teams often consist of people with different skills and expertise that complement each other. Unlike mere groupings of individuals, a team operates synergistically, with the output of the collective often being greater than the sum of individual efforts. The foundational idea behind a team is collaboration: by working together, members can achieve more than they would individually, leveraging each other’s strengths and compensating for any weaknesses.

  1. Detail the concept of Leadership. Discuss Trait theory of Leadership in detail. 3+7

Ans 6.

Leadership: A Detailed Concept

Leadership is a multifaceted concept that pertains to the ability to influence, guide, inspire, and direct a group of individuals to achieve a common goal or objective. Leaders are often viewed as visionaries, motivators, and decision-makers who can create an environment conducive to success, be it in a corporate, political, social, or familial context. Effective leadership entails the aptitude to craft a vision, communicate it persuasively, and guide others

 

SESSION AUG/SEP 2023
PROGRAM Masters of business administration (mba)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DMBA102–BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
   
   

 

 

SET – 1

 

  1. Enlist the steps of delivering a successful oral presentation. Explain. 10

Ans 1.

Steps of Delivering a Successful Oral Presentation and Their Explanation

  1. Objective Identification: Before preparing any presentation, it’s crucial to understand the objective. Ask yourself: What do I want the audience to take away from this? Your entire presentation should be crafted around fulfilling this objective.
  2. Audience Analysis: Recognize and understand your audience. Are they experts in the field, novices, or a mixed group? This will dictate the depth, language, and type of content you present. Tailoring your message to your audience ensures engagement and comprehension.

 

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  1. Explain the various types of Non-Verbal Communication while giving examples as how you will use NV Communication when appearing for a job interview. 10

Ans 2.

Non-verbal communication plays a crucial role in human interaction, and it can significantly impact the outcome of a job interview. Job interviews are not just about what you say; they also involve how you convey your message through non-verbal cues. In this essay, we will explore various types of non-verbal communication and provide examples of how they can be effectively used during a job interview.

  1. Facial Expressions: Facial expressions are one of the most powerful forms of non-verbal communication. A smile can convey warmth and friendliness, while a
  1. Imagine that you are the sales representative of your organization and you are asked to effectively demonstrate a newly launched product/service in front of a target audience. Explain the communication process while including the relevance of context and how the communication can go wrong even if a few elements are missed. 10

Ans 3.

The Communication Process in Product Demonstrations: The Relevance of Context and Potential Pitfalls

When launching a new product or service, effective communication is paramount. As a sales representative, you’re not just presenting a product; you are weaving a story, sharing a solution, and influencing perceptions. The entire process involves multiple elements, and missing even one of these can derail the success of the demonstration.

  1. Sender (Sales Representative): As the initiator of the message, you are responsible for encoding your ideas in a way the audience will understand. This involves knowing

SET – 2

  1. What are different types of Reading? Explain. 5 x 2

Ans 1.

Reading is a fundamental skill that plays a crucial role in our lives. It is not a monolithic activity but rather a multifaceted process that can take on various forms depending on the purpose and context. Here, we will explore five different types of reading and provide a brief explanation of each.

Recreational Reading: Recreational reading, also known as leisure reading or pleasure reading, is perhaps the most common form of reading. It involves reading for enjoyment and relaxation. This type of reading often includes novels, magazines, comics, and any material

 

  1. Illustrate the different components of a Resume. Create an innovative resume of your own using the components. 10

Ans 2.

An Insight into the Components of a Resume and Crafting an Innovative Example

Introduction:
A resume is a document that encapsulates an individual’s academic background, work experience, and skills, serving as a personal advertisement to prospective employers. With the increasing competition in the job market, crafting an impressive resume has become paramount. By understanding the core components of a resume, one can strategically present themselves in the most favorable light. This essay aims to delve into the critical elements of a resume and provide an innovative example to illuminate these components.

 

  1. What is the basic difference between Product Advertising and Corporate Advertising? Explain the different types of Corporate Advertising. 3 + 7

Ans 3.

Difference between Product Advertising and Corporate Advertising:

Feature Product Advertising Corporate Advertising
Objective Promotes a specific product or service to drive sales. Enhances the company’s overall image and communicates its values, mission, and vision.

 

 

SESSION AUG/SEP 2023
PROGRAMME MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME DMBA103-STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT
   
   

 

 

SET 1

1 Define statistics. Explain various functions of statistics. Also discuss the key limitations of statistics.  2+4+4

Ans 1.

Statistics for Management: Definition, Functions, and Limitations

  1. Definition of Statistics: Statistics can be understood in two main contexts:
  2. a) Singular Sense: In this context, ‘statistics’ refers to the science and art of collecting, presenting, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make informed decisions. It provides methods and tools for dealing with variability, uncertainty, and making inferences about populations from samples.
  3. b) Plural Sense: When used in the plural, ‘statistics’ refer to numerical facts or data points collected systematically. For instance, the GDP growth rate of a country, the average age of =

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  1. Define Measurement Scales. Discuss Qualitative and Quantitative data in detail with examples. 2+8

Ans 2.

Measurement Scales

Measurement scales refer to various types of categories into which data can be classified. These scales are foundational in the field of statistics and research, as they dictate the type of statistical technique that can be used to analyze the data. There are primarily four types of measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

  1. Qualitative Data

Qualitative data, often termed as categorical data, deals with characteristics and descriptors that can be observed but not measured. In other words, it’s about understanding an attribute rather than counting it or measuring it with exactitude. Qualitative data can be divided based on the

  1. Discuss the basic laws of Sampling theory. Define following Sampling techniques with help of examples:

Stratified Sampling

Cluster Sampling

Multi-stage Sampling    4+6        

 

Ans 3.

Laws of Sampling Theory

Sampling is a fundamental concept in statistics, which deals with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. There are basic laws of sampling theory that guide how sampling should be done to ensure that the sample is representative of the entire population.

Law of Statistical Regularity: Even if the population is heterogeneous, if the sample is random and sufficiently large, it will still be representative of the population. This law suggests that random samples exhibit the same properties and characteristics as the population from which they are drawn.

SET 2

 

1 Define Business Forecasting. Explain various methods of Business Forecasting.            10

Ans 1.

Business Forecasting Definition and Methods

Business Forecasting refers to the process of estimating or predicting future trends, demands, and developments in a particular business or industry based on historical data, market analysis, and relevant business insights. It aids businesses in making informed decisions, planning for the future, managing resources effectively, and anticipating market changes.

Methods of Business Forecasting:

  1. Judgmental or Qualitative Forecasting:

Expert Opinion: This method involves seeking the opinion of experts in the respective field to predict future outcomes. Their insights, based on experience and expertise, can guide business decisions.

 

  1. What is Index number? Discuss the utility of Index numbers 5+5

Ans 2.

Index Number

An index number is a statistical tool that measures the relative change in a particular variable or a group of related variables over time or different geographical locations. Typically, it quantifies the changes in terms of percentages. Index numbers are often used to track economic indicators, such as inflation, production, and the cost of living. The base year or location is given a value of 100, and subsequent values are calculated to represent the relative change from this base value.

Utility of Index Numbers:

  1. Economic Analysis: Index numbers are extensively used to study economic trends and formulate policies. For instance, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) provides insights into
  1. Discuss various types of Estimators. Also explain the criteria of a good estimator. 5+5

Ans 3.

Various Types of Estimators

Estimators are statistical measures that give an approximation of a particular population parameter based on the information available from a sample. There are several types of estimators:

  1. Point Estimator: This gives a single value as an estimate of the population parameter. For instance, the sample mean (X̄) is a point estimator of the population mean (μ).
  2. Interval Estimator: Instead of giving a single value, an interval estimator provides a range of values as the estimate for the population parameter. A confidence interval is an

 

 

SESSION

AUG/SEP 2023
PROGRAM MASTER of business administration (MBA)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DMBA104- FINANCIAL AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
   
   

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

  1. Explain different types of accounting concepts in detail. 10

Ans 1.

Accounting Concepts

Accounting concepts are the foundational principles upon which the entire structure of accounting is built. These concepts serve as a guide to accountants and financial professionals in recording, reporting, and interpreting financial transactions. Understanding these principles is essential for anyone involved in the financial world. Below, we delve into some of the key accounting concepts and explain their significance.

Going Concern Concept: This concept assumes that a business entity will continue to operate indefinitely. Unless there’s evidence to the contrary, it’s assumed that the company

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  1. Write a detailed note on different types of subsidiary books and their importance in recording accounting transactions. Also demonstrate specimen of any 2 types of subsidiary books. 5+5

Ans 2.

SUBSIDIARY BOOKS IN ACCOUNTING

Subsidiary books, also known as daybooks or special journals, play a pivotal role in the accounting process. These books allow businesses to record specific types of transactions in a detailed manner, which ensures that the main ledger remains uncluttered and easy to interpret. The use of subsidiary books expedites the accounting process and enhances its accuracy. Below are the different types of subsidiary books and their significance in recording accounting transactions.

 

 

  1. For the following balances extracted from a trial balance, prepare a trading account. 10
Particulars Amount in Rs.
Stock on 1-1-2022 70700
Returns inwards 3000
Returns outwards 3000
Purchases 102000
Debtors 56000
Creditors 45000
Carriage inwards 5000
Carriage outwards 4000
Import duty on materials received from abroad 6000
Clearing charges 7000
Rent of business shop 12000
Royalty paid to extract materials 10000
Fire insurance on stock 2000
Wages paid to workers 8000
Office salaries 10000
Cash discount 1000
Gas, electricity, and water 4000
Sales 250000

 

Ans 3.

Trading Account for the Year Ended 31-12-2022

A trading account gives a detailed summary of gross profit or loss of a business. To derive the gross profit, it is essential to take into account direct incomes and direct expenses.

Direct Incomes:

  • Sales: The main income for any trading business. For the given period, sales amount to Rs. 250,000.
  • Stock on 1-1-2022: The beginning inventory is considered in the trading account to compute the cost of goods available for sale. This amount is Rs. 70,700.

Direct Expenses: These are the expenses directly linked to the production or procurement of goods.

Assignment Set – 2

  1. Following is the balance sheet for the period ending 31st March 2018 and 2019. If the current year’s net loss is Rs.38,000, calculate the cash flow from operating activities.
  31st MARCH
  2018 2019
Short-term loan to employees 15,000 18,000
Creditors 30,000 8,000
Provision for doubtful debts 1,200
Bills payable 18,000 20,000
Stock in trade 15,000 13,000
Bills receivable 10,000 22,000
Prepaid expenses 800 600
Outstanding expenses 300 500

 

Ans 4.

Cash Flow from Operating Activities Calculation

The calculation of cash flow from operating activities is primarily based on the changes in working capital items and the net profit or loss for the year. Using the indirect method, we start with the net income (or net loss) and make adjustments for changes in current assets and current liabilities.

Starting Point: Net Loss for the current year: Rs. 38,000

Adjustments for Changes in Current Assets and Liabilities:

  1. Short-term loan to employees:
    • 2018: Rs. 15,000
  1. Define Marginal Costing. Discuss in detail the assumptions and limitations of Marginal Costing. 2+8

Ans 5.

MARGINAL COSTING

Marginal costing, often referred to as direct, variable, or contribution costing, is a method of costing in which only variable costs are charged to products, processes, or services, while fixed costs are treated as period costs and written off during the period in which they are incurred. The main focus is on the change in the total cost due to a change in one unit of production. It helps managers in making decisions regarding production, pricing, and other business strategies by focusing on the marginal or incremental costs and benefits.

 

 

  1. Define budgetary control? Elaborate essential features of budgetary control. 10

Ans 6.

BUDGETARY CONTROL: DEFINITION AND ESSENTIAL FEATURES

Definition of Budgetary Control: Budgetary control is a system of managing costs through preparation of budgets. It entails the process of preparing budgets for a specific period, comparing the actual results with the budgeted figures, and taking corrective action if any discrepancies exist. It serves as a vital tool for management in planning, coordinating, and

 

SESSION Aug/Sep 2023
PROGRAM MASTER of business administration (MBA)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DMBA105 – MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS
   
   

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

  1. What is Law of Demand? What are its exceptions? 2+8     

Ans 1.

Law of Demand

The Law of Demand is a fundamental concept in economics that describes the inverse relationship between the price of a good or service and the quantity demanded by consumers, assuming other factors remain constant (ceteris paribus). Simply put, as the price of a good or service increases, the quantity demanded for it tends to decrease, and conversely, as the price of a good or service decreases, the quantity demanded for it tends to increase.

This behavior can be attributed to two primary effects:

  1. Substitution Effect: When the price of a product rises, other similar products become

 

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  1. Describe the features of various market structures. 10

Ans 2.

Features of Various Market Structures

Market structures provide a framework within which businesses operate, determine product prices, and compete. They essentially describe the nature and level of competition between firms in the same industry. There are several types of market structures, each with its own distinct features and implications for the way businesses behave. Let’s delve into the primary market structures: perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly.

  1. Perfect Competition:

Many Sellers and Buyers: There are numerous sellers, each selling an identical product, and many buyers. No single buyer or seller can influence the market price.

 

  1. Explain the different types of cost with suitable example. 10

Ans 3.

Different Types of Cost with Suitable Examples

Cost is a fundamental concept in economics and business management. At its core, it represents the amount spent to produce or purchase something. However, from a managerial perspective, it is essential to understand the different classifications of costs, as they play a crucial role in decision-making, budgeting, and price setting. Here, we delve into the various types of costs and provide examples for better comprehension.

  1. Fixed Costs: These are costs that do not vary with the level of production or sales. They remain constant regardless of the volume of goods produced or sold. This means that even if

Assignment Set – 2

  1. Outline the characteristics and causes of business cycle. 10

Ans 4.

CHARACTERISTICS OF BUSINESS CYCLES

Wave-Like Movements: Business cycles occur in waves, characterized by alternating periods of expansion and contraction in economic activity. These are recurrent, but not periodic, as they do not follow a fixed time pattern.

Phases: A complete business cycle comprises four phases – expansion or boom, peak, contraction or recession, and trough. The expansion phase sees an upward trajectory of economic activity until it reaches its peak. After the peak, the economic activity starts to

  1. Summarize the different objectives of pricing policies. 10

Ans 5.

Objectives of Pricing Policies

Pricing is a crucial component in the decision-making processes of firms. It not only affects a company’s bottom line but also plays a vital role in positioning a product or service in the market. The objectives behind pricing policies can vary based on the company’s goals, market conditions, and the specific stage of the product life cycle. Here are the key objectives of pricing policies:

Revenue Maximization: One of the primary objectives for many businesses is to maximize revenue. By adjusting the price, a company aims to sell a quantity of the product that will

 

 

  1. Define and discuss the importance of consumption function in detail. 2 +8

Ans 6.

Consumption Function: Definition and Importance

Definition of Consumption Function:

The consumption function, a central concept in Keynesian economics, relates the level of aggregate consumption to the level of disposable income in an economy. It is mathematically expressed as:

C=C0​+c(Y−T)

Where:

  • C = Total consumption
SESSION aug/sep 2023
PROGRAM MASTER of business administration (MBA)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME dMBA106 – HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
CREDITS 4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks 02

30 Marks each

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. Briefly describe the different roles of HR professional in business. 10

Ans 1.

Roles of HR Professional in Business

The roles of Human Resource (HR) professionals have evolved significantly over the years. They have transitioned from mere administrative functions to more strategic roles within the organization. Here are the key roles that HR professionals play in the modern business context:

Strategic Partner: HR professionals are actively involved in forming and executing company strategies. They help the company align its human capital with its strategic objectives, ensuring that the right talent is in place to achieve business goals.

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  1. Discuss selection process outcomes and its effect in the selection of candidates. 10

Ans 2.

Selection Process Outcomes and Its Effect in the Selection of Candidates

The selection process is crucial to ensuring that the right individuals are chosen for the right positions. The outcomes of a selection process are the results that come from evaluating applicants against the criteria required for the job. These outcomes have a profound effect on the selection of candidates in various ways:

  1. Job-Applicant Fit: A primary outcome of the selection process is determining how well an applicant’s skills, experience, and attributes align with the job’s requirements. A successful selection process will accurately measure this fit, ensuring that the candidate can effectively perform the job tasks.

 

 

  1. What is succession planning? What are the benefits of having a formal Succession Planning System in an organization? 3+7

Ans 3.

Succession Planning

Succession planning is a strategic process wherein organizations identify and develop potential leaders to fill key business leadership positions in the future. It ensures that employees are recruited and developed to fill each key role within the company. Succession planning ensures that businesses continue to run smoothly after the company’s most vital people move on to new opportunities, retire, or pass away.

Benefits of Having a Formal Succession Planning System in an Organization:

  1. Ensures Business Continuity: One of the primary benefits of succession planning is ensuring that the organization can continue its operations without disruption even

Assignment Set – 2

  1. Describe competency mapping. Discuss the steps involved in competency mapping with a result of job evaluation. 10

Ans 4.

Competency Mapping

Competency mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for a particular job role and then using this information to develop job descriptions, performance evaluations, training programs, and other HR processes. Competencies can be understood as a combination of skills, knowledge, attitudes, and other attributes that contribute to job performance. Mapping these competencies helps in understanding the exact requirements of a role, ensuring that the right person is selected, trained, and assessed based on these identified competencies.

Steps Involved in Competency Mapping with a Result of Job Evaluation:

  1. Job Analysis: Begin by thoroughly analyzing the job to understand its primary duties
  1. Define wage and salary. What are the factors for effective wage administration? 3+7

Ans 5.

Wage and Salary: Definitions

  1. Wage: Wages typically refer to the compensation paid to workers on an hourly basis for the services they provide. It’s often associated with blue-collar workers, temporary employees, or those who do not have salaried positions. The total amount a worker receives is contingent on the number of hours they work.
  2. Salary: Salary is a fixed regular payment, typically paid monthly or biweekly but often expressed as an annual sum, made by an employer to an employee. It’s not

 

  1. What is a workplace grievance, and why is it important for organizations to have a structured grievance procedure in place? 5+5

Ans 6.

Workplace Grievance:

A workplace grievance is a formal complaint raised by an employee towards an employer within the workplace. It can stem from any perceived injustice, violation, unfair treatment, or dissatisfaction an employee might experience in the course of their employment. Grievances can pertain to a variety of issues, including but not limited to:

  • Unfair treatment by supervisors or colleagues.

BBA 1st SEM Aug/Sep 2023 Oct 2023 Solved Assignments

SESSION AUG/SEP2023
PROGRAM BACHELOROFBUSINESSADMINISTRATION(BBA)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE &NAME DBB1101-COMMUNICATION          &    PERSONALITY

DEVELOPMENT

CREDITS 4
NUMBEROFASSIGNMENTS&

MARKS

02

30Markseach

SET-I

 

 

 

1 Illustrate all the different types of Tenses. Give examples.        10       

Ans 1.

Introduction:

Tenses are a fundamental aspect of grammar that convey the timing of actions or events in a sentence. They enable us to express whether an action is happening in the present, happened in the past, or will occur in the future. English grammar recognizes several different tenses, each serving a unique purpose. In this discussion, we will explore the major types of tenses and provide examples to illustrate their Its Half solved only

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2 Definethe following and also give examples for each:

Noun

Pronoun

Conjunction

Preposition

Interjection   

 

Ans 2.

Introduction

Language is a powerful tool for communication, and understanding its fundamental components is essential for effective expression. Among these components, nouns, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections play pivotal roles. Nouns are words that represent people, places, things, or ideas, such as “dog,” “Paris,” or “freedom.” Pronouns, like “he,” “she,” or “it,” replace nouns to avoid repetition. Conjunctions, such as “and,” “but,” and “or,” connect words, phrases, or clauses in sentences. Prepositions, like “in,” “on,” and “under,” establish relationships between objects in space or time. Interjections, like “wow,” “ouch,” or “bravo,” convey

3 Illustrate the steps of making a flash card choosing any word of your choice. You may use diagrams.      

Ans 3.

Introduction

Flashcards, known for their quintessential role in active recall learning, are simple yet remarkably effective educational tools that promote memory retention through repetitious exposure and testing. They’re widely employed in various educational settings, from elementary schools to professional development courses, aiding in the learning of languages, mathematics, science, and more. Essentially, a flashcard contains a cue or question on one side and the corresponding answer or information on the other, acting as a quick reference and self-testing tool. Creating a flashcard can be straightforward, yet it should be meticulously crafted to

SET-II

 

4 What are the different types of questions that can be asked from a Reading Comprehension? Explain.   

Ans 4.

Introduction

Reading comprehension serves as a pivotal skill across various domains, intertwining an individual’s ability to understand, analyze, and assimilate information conveyed through text. This cognitive faculty isn’t merely about discerning words but involves a nuanced engagement with the text, synthesizing its meaning, and connecting it with existing knowledge. Assorted types of questions stemming from reading comprehension tasks are curated to assess diverse

5 Define Leadership. Explain the different types of leadership profiles.

Ans 5.

Definition of Leadership

Leadership is the act or practice of influencing, guiding, and empowering a group or team towards achieving common goals. It involves inspiring others, making strategic decisions, and creating an environment that fosters collaboration, innovation, and accomplishment. A good leader typically encompasses traits such as vision, integrity, empathy, resilience, and effective

6 Explain the four quadrants of the Johari Window in detail. Use your own examples.

Ans 6.

The Johari Window is a psychological tool developed by psychologists Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham in 1955. It’s designed to help individuals understand and improve their self-awareness and interpersonal relationships. The model divides information about a person into four quadrants, each representing a different aspect of their personality or self-concept. Let’s explore each quadrant in detail with

SESSION AUG/Sept 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR of business administration (BBA)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DBB1102 – organizational behaviour
CREDITS 4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks 02

30 Marks each

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

  1. Explain the Concept of Organizational Behaviour. Discuss the role of a manager in terms of Organizational Behaviour.

Ans 1.

Organizational Behaviour: An Overview

Organizational Behaviour (OB) is a multidisciplinary field that explores the dynamics of individuals, groups, and structures within an organizational context, with the objective to enhance organizational performance and develop better work environments. It amalgamates insights from psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics to understand, predict, and manage human behaviour in Its Half solved only

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  1. Define personality. Examine the various determinants of Personality.

Ans 2.

Personality Definition:

Personality is a complex construct that refers to the consistent and unique behavioral, emotional, and cognitive patterns exhibited by an individual. It’s a blend of traits, behaviors, motivations, and thoughts that persist over time and across situations, distinguishing one person from another. Personality encompasses the ways in which individuals interact with the world and process information, and it guides their

 

  1. The organizational structure of any business enterprise is affected by several factors. Deliberate on those factors. 10

Ans 3.

The organizational structure of any business enterprise serves as the backbone that supports and guides its functions and processes. This structure is not arbitrarily designed; instead, it is sculpted by an array of factors that influence its formation and evolution, ensuring that the entity is well-equipped to navigate through the varied terrains of the business environment.

Nature and Size of the Business:

Assignment Set – 2

 

  1. Define Stress. Highlight the major sources of stress.

Ans 1.

Definition of Stress

Stress, in psychological terms, is a feeling of emotional or physical tension that arises from any event or thought that makes an individual feel frustrated, angry, or nervous. It is essentially the body’s reaction to a challenge or demand, and can manifest in a variety of ways, influencing one’s mental, physical, and emotional states. Stress can be classified into two main types: acute stress, which is short-term and can be beneficial in certain situations (often referred to as “eustress”), and chronic stress, which

  1. Explain the Sources of Conflict in an organization. Briefly discuss five different styles of conflict management.

Ans 2.

Sources of Conflict in an Organization

Conflict arises from various sources within an organization, as differing priorities, goals, and perspectives create discord among individuals or groups.

  • Competing Goals: Different departments or teams within an organization often have distinct goals. Sales teams may push for volume and customer acquisition, while production may prioritize efficiency and quality control, potentially causing friction.
  • Scarce Resources: Limited resources such as budgets, personnel, and materials frequently become points of contention, as

 

 

 

  1. Explain the meaning and importance of a Group in an organization. Explain the stages of group development

Ans 3.

Meaning and Importance of a Group in an Organization

Meaning:

A group in an organizational context refers to a collection of individuals who interact and coordinate their efforts towards achieving a common goal or objective. Groups can be formal, where they are officially recognized and established by the organization with a defined purpose, or informal, where connections are built more spontaneously based on personal relationships or common interests.

Importance:

  • Synergy: Groups foster synergy where the

 

SESSION Aug/sep 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR of business administration (BBA)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME dBB1103 – Business Environment
CREDITS 4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks 02

30 Marks each

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

  1. What are the key points to be understood in environmental analysis?

Ans 1.

Environmental analysis is a crucial component of strategic management and decision-making for businesses in today’s dynamic and complex global landscape. It involves the systematic assessment of various external factors that can impact an organization’s performance and competitive position. To understand environmental analysis comprehensively, several key points must be considered:

Environmental Scanning: Environmental analysis begins with environmental scanning, which is the process of collecting information about the external environment. This includes monitoring political, economic, Its Half solved only

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  1. “Knowingly do no harm” is a part of business ethics. What are the activities considered unethical in business ? 3+7

Ans 2.

Introduction

Business ethics is a crucial aspect of any organization’s operations, emphasizing moral values and principles that guide decision-making and behavior within the business environment. The principle of “knowingly do no harm” serves as a fundamental tenet of business ethics. It implies that businesses should strive to avoid causing harm to individuals, society, and the environment through their actions. Unfortunately, not all businesses adhere to this principle, and various activities are considered unethical due to their harmful consequences. In this essay, we will

 

  1. What do you mean by Financial System? What are the main components of a financial system?

Ans 3.

Introduction

The financial system is a vital pillar of any economy, playing a crucial role in channeling funds from savers to borrowers and facilitating economic growth. It encompasses a complex web of institutions, markets, and intermediaries, all working together to ensure the efficient allocation of resources. This essay delves into the concept of the financial system and explores its main components.

Definition of Financial

Assignment Set – 2

 

 

  1. How does foreign direct investment help in the acceleration of economy? How is FDI channelized in India?

Ans 4.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) plays a crucial role in accelerating the economy of a country by fostering economic growth, technological advancement, and employment generation. In the case of India, FDI has become increasingly important in recent years. This essay will discuss how FDI contributes to the acceleration of the economy and the channels through which it is channeled in

  1. In what ways does the public sector help the government and the country?

Ans 5.

The public sector plays a crucial role in supporting the government and contributing to the overall development and well-being of a country. It serves as a key driver of economic growth, social welfare, and infrastructure development. In this essay, we will explore the various ways in which the public sector helps the government and the country.

Economic Stability:

 

  1. Brief about the corporate social responsibility of business houses towards probable customers and human resource with suitable example.

Ans 6.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) refers to the ethical and responsible conduct of businesses towards society and the environment, beyond their primary goal of profit maximization. In the context of probable customers and human resources, businesses have certain responsibilities. Here is a brief explanation along with suitable examples:

Responsibility

 

SESSION AUG/SEPT 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR of business administration (BBA)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DBB1104 – MARKETING MANAGEMENT
CREDITS 4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks 02

30 Marks each

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. List the strategies employed by marketers for decisions related to product mix. Briefly explain the factors influencing the product mix decision of a firm.

Ans 1.

In the context of marketing management, the product mix refers to the assortment of products or services offered by a firm. Marketers employ various strategies to make decisions related to the product mix, and these strategies are influenced by several factors. Here are some of the strategies and factors:

Strategies Employed by Its Half solved only

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  1. The societal marketing concept is considered as an extension to marketing concept. How will you justify the context of statement? Discuss in detail with suitable exampl

Ans 2.

The societal marketing concept is indeed an extension of the traditional marketing concept. While the traditional marketing concept primarily focuses on satisfying the needs and wants of consumers to generate profits for the company, the societal marketing concept takes it a step further. It considers not only the company’s profits but also the well-being of society and the environment. Here’s a

  1. There are list of internal and external factors affecting pricing decisions. Interpret the statement and elaborate in detail with suitable examples.

Ans 3.

The statement “There are a list of internal and external factors affecting pricing decisions” refers to the various factors that an organization must consider when determining the price of its products or services. Pricing decisions are critical in marketing strategy as they directly impact a company’s revenue, profit margins, and overall competitiveness. These factors can be categorized into internal factors,

Assignment Set – 2

  1. Define consumer behaviour. Describe in detail factors which determine consumer behaviour.

Ans 4.

Consumer Behavior Definition

Consumer behavior refers to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants. It involves understanding the decision-making processes they undergo and the external and internal factors that

  1. Define market segmentation. Describe the need for market segmentation.

Ans 5.

Definition of Market Segmentation:

Market segmentation refers to the practice of dividing a market into distinct subsets of consumers with common needs or characteristics and selecting one or more segments to target with a distinct marketing mix. These segments can be distinguished and grouped on various bases such as demographic, geographic, psychographic, and behavioral factors. The aim is to provide a more focused and tailored marketing approach that precisely caters to the distinct needs and wants

  1. Integrated marketing communication requires rigorous planning and detailing of steps to develop strategy. Considering this statement, discuss the steps followed in developing an integrated promotion mix.

Ans 6.

Developing an integrated promotion mix involves careful planning and coordination of various marketing communication tools to ensure that a consistent and effective message is delivered to the target audience. Here are the steps typically followed in developing an integrated promotion mix:

Understand the Target Audience: The first step is to thoroughly understand the characteristics, needs, preferences, and behaviors of the target audience. This information will help in crafting messages that resonate

SESSION Aug/Sep 2023
PROGRAM BACHELOR of Business administration
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DBB1105– Computer Fundamentals

Set – 1

 

  1. Illustrate the architecture of a computer system and explain the functions of various units. 10

Ans 1.

Introduction

A computer system’s architecture is the blueprint that defines its structure and organization. It encompasses various hardware and software components working together to execute tasks and process information. Understanding this architecture is crucial to comprehend how computers function. This explanation will delve into the key concepts of a computer’s architecture, highlighting the Its Half solved only

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  1. Explain the Volatile and Non-Volatile memory. 10

Ans 2.

Introduction:

Memory is a fundamental component of modern computing, serving as the repository for data and instructions that enable the functioning of electronic devices. Two primary categories of memory, volatile and non-volatile, play distinct roles in this ecosystem. Volatile memory is characterized by its temporary nature, storing data only as long as power is supplied, while non-volatile memory retains data even when power is disconnected. This distinction is critical in determining how data is

  1. What is the difference between Input and Output Devices? 10

Ans 3.

Introduction

Input and output devices are essential components of computer systems that play distinct roles in the communication between humans and machines. Input devices are responsible for collecting data and user commands and transmitting them to the computer, while output devices convey processed information from the computer to the user. Understanding the differences between these two types of

Set – 2

 

  1. Briefly explain the software development process. 10

Ans 1.

Introduction

The software development process is a systematic approach to creating software applications, encompassing various stages from conception to deployment. It is a crucial aspect of modern technology-driven industries, ensuring the delivery of functional and reliable software products. This process involves careful planning, design, coding, testing, and maintenance, with the ultimate goal of meeting user requirements and solving specific problems. In this brief overview, we will delve deeper into the concept of software development, exploring its core stages and methodologies before

  1. Explain different stages in Software Testing. 10

Ans 2.

Introduction

Software testing is a critical phase in the software development life cycle that ensures the quality and reliability of a software product. It involves systematically evaluating a software application to identify defects, bugs, or issues that may affect its performance or functionality. The testing process is divided into several stages, each with its specific objectives and activities. These stages

  1. Describe the various Computer Generations 10

Ans 3.

Introduction:

Computer generations refer to the different stages of development in computer technology, each characterized by distinct advancements in hardware, software, and computing capabilities. These generations have paved the way for the modern digital age, evolving from massive, room-sized machines to portable devices with immense processing power. In this discussion, we will delve into the concept of computer generations, exploring the key developments and innovations that have

B.Com 2023 Solved assignments 2023

SESSIONApril 2023
PROGRAMMaster of COMMERCE (M.com)
SEMESTERII
course CODE & NAMEDCM 6202 MANAGEMENET ACCOUNTING
CREDITS4

Assignment Set – 1

1. The following data are available in a manufacturing company for a yearly period:

Fixed Expenses: (Rs. Lakhs)
Wages & Salaries9.50
Rent, rates, and taxes6.60
Depreciation7.40
Sundry administrative expenses6.50
Semi- Variable Expenses (at 50% Capacity) 
Maintenance and repairs3.50
Indirect Labour7.90
Sales department salaries3.80
Sundry administrative expenses2.80
Variable expenses (at 50% Capacity) 
Materials21.70
Labour20.40
Other expenses7.90
 98.00

Assume that the fixed expenses remain constant for all levels of production, and semi-variable expenses remain constant between 45% and 65% of capacity, increasing by 10% between 65% and 80% capacity and by 20% between 80% and 100% capacity. Sales at various levels are:

50% Capacity100 Lakhs
60% Capacity120 Lakhs
75% Capacity150 Lakhs
90% Capacity180 Lakhs
100% Capacity200 Lakhs

Prepare a flexible budget for the year and forecast the profits at 60%, 75% and 100% capacity.

ANS:To prepare a flexible budget for the year and forecast the profits at 60%, 75%, and 100% capacity, we need to calculate the expenses for each level of production and subtract them from the corresponding sales figures.

Let’s calculate the flexible budget and forecast the profits: 

Fixed Expenses (Rs. Lakhs): 

Wages & Salaries: 9.50

Rent, rates,

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2. “The technique of marginal costing can be a valuable aid to management”. Examine the statement with respect to the application of marginal costing in decision-making.

ANS:The statement “The technique of marginal costing can be a valuable aid to management” is indeed true. Marginal costing, also known as variable costing, is a costing technique that separates fixed costs from variable costs and focuses on the impact of changes in production volume on costs and

3. “Analysis without interpretation is meaningless and interpretation without analysis is impossible”. Discuss in the light of above statement concept and significance of financial statement analysis.  

ANS:The statement “Analysis without interpretation is meaningless and interpretation without analysis is impossible” emphasizes the inseparable relationship between analysis and interpretation. This principle applies to financial statement analysis, which involves the examination and evaluation

Assignment Set – 2

4. The following schedule shows the balance sheet in the condensed form of Machinery manufacturing company Ltd. at the end of the year 2022:

Assets1-1-2023 (Rs.)31-12-2023 (Rs.)
Cash and Bank Balance9000090000
Sundry debtors6700043000
Temporary investments11000074000
Prepaid expenses10002000
Stock in trade82000106000
Land & Buildings150000150000
Machinery5200070000
 552000535000
Liabilities & Capital  
Sundry creditors10300096000
Outstanding expenses1300012000
8% Debentures9000070000
Depreciation Fund4000044000
Reserve for contingencies6000060000
Profit & Loss Account1600023000
Capital230000230000
 552000535000

The following information concerning the transactions is available: –

ANS: To analyze the impact of the given transactions on the balance sheet of Machinery Manufacturing Company Ltd., let’s go through each transaction step by step: 

10% dividend was paid in cash: This transaction affects the Cash and Bank Balance on the Assets side and the Profit & Loss Account on the Liabilities & Capital side. The Cash and Bank Balance will decrease by the amount of the dividend paid, and the Profit & Loss Account will decrease by the same amount. 

New machinery for Rs. 30,000 was purchased, but old machinery costing Rs. 12,000 was sold for Rs. 4,000;

5. Describe the principle ratios which you consider significant while interpreting the published accounts of a company and explain the inferences which may be drawn from them.

ANS:When interpreting the published accounts of a company, several key financial ratios can provide valuable insights into its financial performance, stability, and efficiency.

Here are some

6. According to Kaplan and Norton “balanced scorecard is not a template to be applied to businesses in general or even industry wide. Businesses must devise customized scorecards to fit

ANS:According to Kaplan and Norton, the Balanced Scorecard is not a one-size-fits-all template, but rather a framework that businesses should customize to suit their specific market situations, product strategies, and competitive pressures. The Balanced Scorecard consists of four perspectives that provide a comprehensive view of a company’s performance.

Let’s explore these perspectives

SESSIONAPRIL 2023
PROGRAMBACHELOR of COMMERCE (B COM)
SEMESTERII
course CODE & NAMEDCM1201 – Computer Awareness and Internet
CREDITS4

Set – 1st

1. Illustrate the architecture of a computer system and explain the functions of various units?

ANS: The architecture of a computer system refers to its organization and structure, including the various components and their interactions.

The following is a high-level illustration of the architecture of a typical computer system, along with an explanation of the functions of its various units: 

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2. Discuss the different categories of peripheral devices along with their functionality

ANS: Peripheral devices are those devices that are linked either internally or externally to a computer. These devices are commonly used to transfer data. The most common processes that are carried out in a computer are entering data and displaying processed data. Several devices can be used to receive data and display processed data. The devices used to perform

3. Briefly explain the various types of number system

ANS: A number system is defined as a system of writing to express numbers. It is the mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set by using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner. It provides a unique representation of every number and represents the arithmetic and algebraic structure of the figures.

Set – 2nd

4. Briefly explain software development process.

ANS: The software development process is a systematic approach to designing, creating, and maintaining software applications.

While specific methodologies and frameworks can vary, the general software development process typically involves the following phases: 

5. Explain different stages in Software Testing.

ANS: Software testing involves the process of evaluating a software system or application to identify any defects, errors, or discrepancies between expected and actual results. The software testing process typically consists of several stages or phases, each serving a specific purpose.

6. Explain TCP/IP Protocol layers

ANS: The TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocol suite is a set of networking protocols that form the basis of the internet and many private networks. It consists of four layers, each serving a specific purpose in facilitating communication between devices.

Here’s an explanation of the TCP/IP protocol layers: 

SESSIONApril 2023
PROGRAMBACHELOR of COMMERCE (B COM)
SEMESTERII
course CODE & NAMEDCM1202 Marketing Management
CREDITS4

Set – 1st

1. Explain the functions of Marketing.

Ans: It may be noted that a marketing function or operation may be performed either once or several times till the goods reach the final consumers either by the producer himself or by the middlemen. The various marketing functions can be classified into three categories.

They are:

• Functions of Exchange

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2. What are the internal factors affecting a market? Explain in brief

Ans:Internal factors refer to elements within a company or organization that can influence the functioning and performance of a market. These factors can significantly impact the market dynamics, competitiveness, and success of a business.

Here are some key internal factors that affect a market: 

3. Describe SWOT analysis with suitable example.

Ans:SWOT analysis is a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of a business or a specific project. It helps organizations identify internal factors that they can leverage and external factors they need to address to achieve their objectives.

Set – 2nd

1. What is pricing? Explain its importance

Ans: The Price of a product is not fixed and is dependent on several factors. Pricing decisions need to be taken by considering the profit margins for the company as well as the pricing fixed by competition. Price mix needs to take into account the base price, discounts or allowances as well as the cost of freight, financing, credit, etc.

2. What are the steps involved in buying a product? Explain

Ans: The process of buying a product typically involves several steps that customers go through before making a purchase decision.

While the specifics may vary depending on the product and individual preferences, here are the general steps involved in buying a product:-

3. What is green marketing? Why is it important

Ans: Green marketing, also known as sustainable marketing or environmental marketing, refers to the practice of promoting products or services that have environmentally friendly attributes or are produced using sustainable practices. It involves highlighting a company’s commitment to sustainability, environmental responsibility, and social consciousness to appeal to environmentally conscious consumers.

SESSIONApril 2023
PROGRAMBACHELOR of Commerce (BCom)
SEMESTERI
course CODE & NAMEDCM1203 – Fundamentals of Accounting II
CREDITS4

Assignment Set – 1

1. A. J, K and P are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:3:1 respectively. Mr. J died on 31st December 2021. Final amount due to her showed a credit balance of 1, 00,000. Pass journal entries if,

(a) The amount due is paid off immediately.

(b) The amount due is not paid immediately.

              (c) ₹50, 000 is paid and the balance in future.

Ans: (a) When the amount due to Mr. J is paid off immediately:

Assuming that Mr. J’s capital account needs to be settled, the following journal entry is recorded: 

  • J’s Capital Account Dr. – ₹1, 00,000
  • To Cash Account – ₹1, 00,000

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B. Discuss the objectives of Partnership Firm.

Ans: The objectives of a partnership firm can vary depending on the specific goals and aspirations of the partners involved.

However, some common objectives of partnership firms include: 

Profit Maximization: One of the primary objectives of a partnership firm is to generate profits and maximize returns for the partners. By pooling their resources, skills, and efforts,

2. Sameer and Yasmin are partners with capitals of ₹ 15, 00,000 and ₹ 10, 00,000 respectively. They agreed to share profits in the ratio of 3:2. The books are closed on March 31, every year. Show how the following transactions will be recorded in the capital accounts of the partners in case:

(i)The capitals are fixed, and

(ii) The capitals are fluctuating.

ParticularsSameerYasmin
Capital contributed on 1st Oct 20193,00,0002,00,000
Interest on capital5 % P. a.5 % P. a.
Drawings (during 2019-20)30,00020,000
Interest on drawings1,8001,200
Salary20,000
Commission10,0007,000
Share in Profit for the year 19-2060,00040,000

Ans: (i) Recording transactions with fixed capitals: 

Capital contributed on 1st Oct 2019:

Sameer’s Capital Account:

  • Capital ₹3, 00,000
  • To Cash Account ₹3, 00,000

Yasmin’s Capital Account:

  • Capital ₹2, 00,000
  • To Cash Account ₹2, 00,000

.

 (ii) Recording transactions with fluctuating capitals: 

Capital contributed on 1st Oct 2019:

Sameer’s Capital Account:

  • Capital ₹3, 00,000
  • To Cash Account ₹3, 00,000

Yasmin’s Capital Account:

  • Capital ₹2, 00,000
  • To Cash Account ₹2, 00,000

3. A.  Describe the distinction between dissolution of a firm and dissolution of a partnership.

Ans: The terms “dissolution of a firm” and “dissolution of a partnership” are often used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings in the context of business partnerships.

Let’s explore the differences: 

3. B. P, Q, and R are business partners who split profits in a 3:2:1 ratio. When Q retired, his portion was split evenly between P and R. Calculate P and R’s new profit-sharing ratio.

Ans: Initially, the profit-sharing ratio between P, Q, and R is 3:2:1.

Let’s assume the total profits as “x”:-

So, P’s share = (3/6) * x = (1/2) * x

Assignment Set – 2

4. A. Explain the differences between Departments and Branches

Ans:

  • Departments: 

Definition: Departments are functional units within an organization that are responsible for specific activities or functions. They are typically organized based on the different areas of expertise or tasks performed within the company.


4. B. Pass the journal entries in books of Lessee for the following cases.

  1. When the royalty is payable
    1. For payment to landlord
    1. Transferring royalty to P/L A/C
    1. When short working is recouped

Transfer irrecoverable short working transfer to P/L A/c

Ans: When the royalty is payable:

Royalty Expense A/C Dr.

To Royalty Payable A/C 

5. Shree Traders of Gujrat purchased 10,000 sarees @ ₹ 100 per saree. Out of these, 6000 sarees were sent on consignment to Nirmala Traders of Kolkata at the selling price of ₹ 120 per saree. The consignors paid ₹ 3,000 for packing and freight.

Nirmala Traders sold 5,000 sarees @ ₹ 125 per saree and incurred ₹ 1,000 for selling expenses and remitted ₹ 5,00,000 to Shree Gujrat on account. They are entitled to a commission of 5% on total sales plus a further of 25% commission on any surplus price realized over ₹ 120 per saree.

3,000 sarees were sold at Gujrat @ ₹ 110 per saree.

Owing to fall in market price, the value of stock of saree in hand is to be reduced by 5%. You are required to prepare

(i) Consignment Account, and

ii) Nirmala Traders Account in the book of consignor.

Ans: (i) Consignment Account in the books of Shree Traders, the Consignor:  Consignment Account

Particulars | Amount (₹)

To Goods sent on |

Consignment to Nirmala | 1, 20,000

Traders (6000 sarees) |

6. Explain the Features of Joint Ventures.

Ans: Features of Joint Venture:-

Now, we shall go through some of the crucial features of joint ventures that are as follows:

Agreement: Two or more firms agree to undertake a business, for a definite purpose and are bound by it.

• Joint Control: The business assets, operations, administration and the venture itself exist under the joint control of the co-venturers.

• Pooling of resources and expertise: Firms pool their resources like capital, workforce,

SESSIONApril 2022
PROGRAMBACHELOROFCOMMERCE(BCOM)
SEMESTERII
COURSECODE&NAMEDCM1204– BUSINESS LAW
CREDITS4

Assignment Set – 1st

1. Discussthe remedies which are available to an aggrieved party in case of a breach of contract?

ANS: When a breach of contract occurs, the aggrieved party typically has a range of remedies available to seek redress for the harm suffered. The specific remedies that may be pursued can depend on various factors, such as the nature of the breach, the terms of the contract, and the governing law.

Here are some common remedies for breach of contract: 

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2. Explain the essentials of a contract of sale.

ANS:

Essentials of Valid Contracts

A brief description of the essentials of a valid contract is given below. A detailed explanation follows in the subsequent units.

1. Minimum two parties: At least two parties are necessary to form a contract because one person cannot enter into a contract with himself. To form a contract, one party has to make an offer and the other must accept it. The person who makes the “proposal” or offer is called the

3. “If you do not register your partnership firm you will be deprived of certain benefits”. With reference to this statement, discuss the effects of non-registration of a partnership firm.

ANS: The effects of non-registration of a partnership firm can vary depending on the jurisdiction, as different countries may have different legal requirements and regulations regarding partnership registration.

However, in general, there are several common effects of non-registration that are worth considering: 

Assignment Set – 2nd

4. Discuss the different types of cyber-crimes which are committed?

ANS:Cyber-crime refers to criminal activities that are conducted through digital or computer networks, targeting individuals, organizations, or computer systems. The field of cyber-crime is vast and constantly evolving as technology advances.

Here are some of the different types of cyber-crimes that are commonly committed: 

5. Discuss the different provisions laid down in District Forum, State Commission and National Commission.

ANS:

A brief description of some of the important laws is given below.

A more detailed description will be dealt with in the ensuing units.

The Sale of Goods Act, 1930 This Act governs the contracts relating to Sale of Goods. It deals with the contracts for sale of movable property like vehicles, furniture etc. The Act has prescribed rules and provisions pertaining to modes of transferring movable goods. It contains provisions stipulating the rights and duties of buyers and sellers, as well as the means by which they can enforce the same. The need for a separate law governing contracts

6. Discuss the duties of the conciliation officer? State the difference between strike, lockout and layoff.

ANS: The duties of a conciliation officer typically arise in the context of labor and employment disputes. Their role is to facilitate the resolution of conflicts between employers and employees through conciliation or mediation.

Here are some of the key duties of a

SESSIONApril 2023
PROGRAMBACHELOR of COMMERCE (B.COM.)
SEMESTERII
course CODE & NAMEDCM1205FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTERPRENEURSHIP & INNOVATION
CREDITS4

Set – 1st

1. Discuss in detail the different leadership styles.

Ans:

Different leadership styles

1. Autocratic Leadership Style Autocratic Style can be illustrated with the phrase “Do as I Say”. Autocratic leaders think that they are the smartest people and they know better than others.

That is why they do not take any suggestions from their team members, they just pass the orders. This can be also known as the command-and-control approach. A leader can use this style when a crucial decision has to be taken. Some examples of autocratic leadership include

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2. Describe the meaning and concept of Entrepreneurial Behaviour.

Ans: Entrepreneurial behaviour refers to the actions, attitudes, and mind-set exhibited by individuals who engage in entrepreneurial activities. It involves a unique set of characteristics and actions that drive individuals to identify opportunities, take risks, and create innovative solutions to meet market needs.

Entrepreneurial behaviour encompasses various aspects of an entrepreneur’s mind-set

3. Define Entrepreneur. Also, provide an overview of the types of entrepreneurs as classified by Clarence H. Danhof based on their motives and objectives.

Ans: An entrepreneur is an individual who initiates and manages a business venture, taking on financial risks in the hope of earning profits. Entrepreneurs are characterized by their ability to identify opportunities, innovate, organize resources, and undertake calculated risks to create and grow successful businesses.

Clarence H. Danhof, a renowned economist, classified entrepreneurs into four types

Set – 2nd

1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages attached to Venture Capital Funding.

Ans: Venture capital funding can provide significant advantages and opportunities for start-ups and entrepreneurs. However, it also comes with certain disadvantages and considerations.

Let’s discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of venture capital funding:-

Advantages of Venture Capital Funding:-

2. “PESTLE analysis is a useful tool for understanding the ‘big picture’ of the business environment in which an entrepreneur is planning to operate”. Explain the statement.

Ans: The statement emphasizes that PESTLE analysis is a valuable tool for entrepreneurs to gain a comprehensive understanding of the broader business environment in which they intend to operate. PESTLE analysis examines various external factors that can significantly impact the success and operations of a business.

Let’s break down the statement and explain its meaning: 

3. Analyze the contents of a well-structured Project Report.

Ans: A well-structured project report typically includes the following key components: 

Title Page: The title page provides basic information about the project, such as the project title, the name of the organization or institution, the name of the author or group members, and the date of submission.

Executive Summary: The executive summary provides an overview of the entire project

SESSIONAPRIL 2023
PROGRAMB.com
SEMESTERII
course CODE & NAMEDCM1206 – ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT IN INDIA
CREDITS4

Set – 1st

1. What are the stages of planning in India? Also discuss the objectives of Planning in India.

Ans: In India, the process of planning involves several stages. The primary stages of planning in India are:  Formulation of Plans: This stage involves the formulation of national plans, such as the Five-Year Plans, which outline the economic and social development goals for the country.

Plan Appraisal: Once the plans are formulated, they undergo a comprehensive appraisal process. The proposed plans are reviewed, analysed, and evaluated by experts to assess their

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2. Discuss the significance of Capital formation. What are the types of productivity ratios.

Ans: Capital formation refers to the process of increasing the stock of real capital in an economy by channelling savings and investments into productive assets. It is a critical driver of economic growth and development.

Here are the key significances of capital formation: 

Economic Growth: Capital formation plays a fundamental role in stimulating economic

3. Discuss in detail the different types of reforms which came up in India as a result of Liberalisation.

Ans: Liberalization refers to the relaxation of government regulations and controls on economic activities with the aim of promoting economic growth, efficiency, and competitiveness. In India, the process of liberalization began in the early 1990s and brought about significant reforms in various sectors.

Set – 2nd

1. Discuss the role of public sector in Economic development.

Ans: The public sector plays a crucial role in the economic development of a country. It refers to the part of the economy that is owned, controlled, and operated by the government.

Here are the key roles of the public sector in economic development:

Infrastructure Development: The public sector plays a vital role in developing and maintaining essential infrastructure such as transportation networks, power generation and

2. Write a short note on – Issue of Privatization. Also discuss the problems faced by the public sector in India.

Ans: Privatization refers to the process of transferring ownership, control, and management of public sector enterprises or assets to the private sector. It involves the sale or transfer of government-owned businesses, industries, or infrastructure to private entities.

Privatization is often undertaken with the aim of improving efficiency, promoting

3. Discuss in detail the importance of transportation in Indian scenario.

Ans: Transportation plays a crucial role in the economic development and social well-being of India. Given its vast geographical expanse, diverse population, and growing economy, efficient transportation systems are essential for connecting people, goods, and resources across the country.

Here are some key points highlighting the importance of transportation in the Indian

ASSIGNMENT

SESSIONAprl 2023
PROGRAMBACHELOR of COMMERCE (B COM)
SEMESTERIII
course CODE & NAMEbUSINESS cOMMUNICATION& DCM2101
CREDITS4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks02 30 Marks each

Set – 1

1. “Informal communication network is not just for idle rumors and may be useful in many ways.” Justify.           

Ans 1.

Informal communication networks, often referred to as the “grapevine,” have been traditionally associated with rumors, gossip, and misinformation. However, this perception can be misleading as it underestimates the potential of these networks to contribute to the organizational communication system positively. While it’s true that informal communication can at times proliferate rumors, its advantages are manifold, ranging from fostering

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2. Explain the different types of verbal and non-verbal communication.           

Ans 2.

Communication may be divided into two types, they are:

• Verbal communication

• Non-verbal communication

Let us briefly discuss these two types of communication.

• Verbal communication– This type of communication occurs with the help of words. It

3. Explain the principles of letter writing.  

Ans 3.

Principles of writing business letters

Business letters are used primarily to communicate with external stakeholders such as consumers, intermediaries, government and bankers. The principles of business letter writing are somewhat different from the principles of writing general letters. Business letters are

Set – 2

1. What are the different components of a resume? Explain.

Ans 1.

Components of Resumes

Irrespective of the type of resume, all resumes must have the same basic information or standard components. Figure depicts the various components of a resume.

Resume Components

• Basic data– This includes the name, address, telephone number, and email id. The information provided must allow a prospective employer to reach you easily. If you are still

2. Explain the techniques that you can follow to write a report in a convincing manner, so that the reader accepts them as valid and reliable.

Ans 2.

Reports must also be written in a convincing manner, so that the reader accepts them as valid and reliable. Some suggested techniques to achieve them are:

State the facts in an objective manner – Avoid using superlatives and emotional terms that introduce bias in the research or that suggest that you are passing judgment. For example,

3. What are the various visual aids that speakers can use in their presentation?

Ans 3.

Using visual aids to support presentations

The use of visual aids enhances the effectiveness of a presentation and involves the audience more than a pure oral presentation. As the saying goes, “A picture is worth a thousand words”. Several studies have indicated that presentations made with visual support have been

ASSIGNMENT

SESSIONMarCh 2023
PROGRAMBACHELOR of Commerce (BCOM)
SEMESTERIII
course CODE & NAMEDCM2102 – Financial management
CREDITS4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks02 30 Marks each

Assignment Set – 1

1. Explain the functions of a financial manager in any organization.

Ans 1.

Functions of a financial manager

A finance manager is a person who is responsible for carrying out the functions of a finance department.

The main functions of finance managers:

Organization of Finance Function

Raising of Funds:

This is a very important function of the finance manager. He has to plan for raising funds as

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2. Calculate the present value of the following cash flows assuming a discount rate of 10% per annum.

YearCash flows [₹]
110000
220000
330000
440000
550000

Ans 2.


The present value (PV) of future cash flows can be calculated using the formula:

PV = CF / (1 + r)^n

where:

  • PV is the present value
  • CF is the cash flow in the future
  • r is the discount rate

3. Explain the significance of the concept of cost of capital. Discuss different component of cost of capital with example.

Ans 3.

Significance of cost of capital

The concept of cost of capital is used frequently in taking financial decisions such as investment, financing, credit decisions etc. Let us understand the significance for each of them.

1. Investment Decisions: When a firm has to evaluate an investment opportunity it uses the cost of capital for discount the cash flows expected from the project over its life time. Even if

Assignment Set – 2

1. What are the sources of finance? Discuss the short term and long term sources of finance for the firm.   

Ans 1.

Sources of finance

The world is well aware of the importance of good financial managers. As a result, there is abundant advice on how to become a financial manager. Financial management is a blend of art and science through which the important decisions are taken: what to invest in, how to finance it, and how to combine the two in order to maximise some

3. What is Working capital management? Discuss various factors that affect working capital requirement?           

Ans 3.

Working capital management

The effort of management which goes towards effective management of current assets and current liabilities is termed as working capital management (WCM). It is the difference between current assets and current liabilities. In other words, efficient WCM means ensuring sufficient liquidity in the business to be able to meet day-to-day expenses and short term

SESSIONApril 2023
PROGRAMBACHELOR of COMMERCE (B COM)
SEMESTERIII
course CODE & NAMEDCM2103 Cost Accounting
CREDITS4
NUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks02 30 Marks each

1a. Discuss the classification of cost on the basis of elements.

Ans 1a.

Classification of Costs on the Basis of Elements

Costs can be classified into different categories based on various elements or components that contribute to their overall composition. The classification of costs on the basis of elements provides insights into the nature and structure of costs incurred by businesses. Here are the main elements used to classify Its Half solved only

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1b. State the features of a good wage system.

Ans 1b.

Features of a Good Wage System

A good wage system plays a crucial role in attracting, motivating, and retaining talented employees while ensuring fairness and productivity within an organization. Here are the key features of a good wage system:

Competitiveness: A good wage system should be competitive in relation to the industry

Q2. The following information is in respect of Material.

Re-order quantity = 3000 units

Re-order period = 4 – 6 weeks 

Maximum Consumption = 800 units per week

Normal consumption = 600 units per week

Minimum consumption = 500 units per week 

Emergency Re- order period = 2 weeks 

Calculate: (a). Re-order level (b) Minimum Level (c) Maximum Level (d) Average stock level (e) Danger Level


To calculate the various levels of stock for the given material, we can use the following formulas:

(a) Re-order level = Maximum consumption × Re-order period

(b) Minimum level = Minimum consumption × Re-order period

(c) Maximum level = Maximum consumption × (Re-order period + Emergency re-order

3a. a. Discuss the functional classification of overhead.

b. Explain the meaning &features of job costing.

Answer 3a:

Overhead costs represent the ongoing business expenses that are not directly attributed to creating a product or service. Being an integral part of operations, overheads are inherent in every business, irrespective of the industry or nature of the enterprise. Their classification allows for a comprehensive understanding of business expenditure, aiding in effective cost management and optimal resource utilization

Set – 2

Q1. M Ltd. produced and sold are 5000 units @ ₹ 25 per unit. From given data prepare cost sheet with per unit.

Answer:

A cost sheet is a statement that shows the various components of total cost for a product and all the incurred costs according to their categories. Given your provided data, let’s prepare the cost sheet:

ParticularsTotal Cost (₹)Cost per Unit (₹)
Direct Costs

2a.  Explain the advantages of cost accounting.

Ans 2a.

Cost accounting is a valuable tool that provides businesses with numerous advantages. It involves analyzing, tracking, and recording all costs associated with the production of goods or services. By implementing effective cost accounting practices, organizations can make informed decisions, improve efficiency, and enhance profitability. Below are some of the key

b. Q Ltd. produces a product involving 2 distinct processes of manufacture. The identical units are introduced in process A and the entire output is transferred to process B.

From the following particulars prepare the relevant process accounts.

Particulars
Materials 
Process A (10560units introduced)263950
Process B55610
Direct Labour 
Process A63000
Process B132000

There was no opening or closing stock in process A and process B. Works overheads are absorbed @ 40% of Direct labour in all processes. There were no spoiled units in any process.

Ans 2b.

The process accounts for Process A and Process B can be prepared as follows:

Process A Account:

Particulars
To Materials (10560 units introduced)263950

3a. Explain any 3 types of operating costing.

Ans 3a.

There are 3 types of operating costing

  • Transport costing
  • Power and distribution costing
  • Boiler house costing

1. Transport costing: The costing in the transport industry meets multiple objectives.

These objectives can be segregated as follows by the type of transport service an organisation

3b. Explain the need of reconciliation of costing records and financial records.

Ans 3b.

The reconciliation of costing records and financial records is a critical process in business accounting. Costing records refer to the records that capture the cost of production or provision of goods and services, while financial records encompass the overall financial transactions and statements of a company. Reconciling these two sets of records is essential

ASSIGNMENT

SESSIONMARCH 2023
PROGRAMBACHELOR of COMMERCE (B.Com.)
SEMESTERIII
course CODE & NAMEDCM2104 – BUSINESS STATISTICS
CREDITS4
NUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks02 30 Marks each

Set – 1

1. (a) Discuss limitations of Statistics. Also summarize how Statistics is useful in accountancy and auditing. 

Ans 1 (a).

Statistics with all its wide application in every sphere of human activity has its own limitations. Some of them are given below.

1. Statistics is not suitable to the study of qualitative phenomenon: Since statistics is basically a science and deals with a set of numerical data, it is applicable to the study of only these subjects of enquiry, which can be expressed in terms of quantitative measurements. As

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(b)       Calculate the mean of the following frequency distribution:

 X        2          4          6          8          10

F          1          4          6          4          1

Ans:

The mean (or average) of a frequency distribution can be calculated by multiplying each value of the variable by its corresponding frequency, summing those products, and then dividing by the total frequency.

Given the frequency distribution:

X: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 F: 1, 4, 6, 4, 1

2.  (a) Describe requisites of a good measure of dispersion.         

Ans 2(a)

A good measure of dispersion should meet certain prerequisites to adequately fulfill its purpose. Here are the major requirements:

1. Robustness: A useful measure of dispersion should be less susceptible to extreme values, and therefore not dramatically change when outliers are introduced or removed. It should give a fair representation of the data’s spread irrespective of such

(b) Demonstrate the uses of Regression Analysis? Give five examples where the use of regression analysis can beneficially be made.

Ans 2b.

The term “regression” is used to denote estimation or prediction of the average value of one variable for a specified value of the other variable. The estimation is done by means of suitable equations, derived on the basis of available bivariate data. Such an equation is known as regression equation and its geometrical representation is called regression

3.(a) Explain various methods of Secular Trends.

Ans 3(a)

Secular trends refer to long-term patterns or shifts in a given set of data. These trends are often used in economics, demography, finance, and many other fields to forecast future outcomes or interpret historical patterns. There are various methods of identifying and analyzing secular trends,

(b) Describe t-test and assumptions related to this test?   

Ans 3(b)

The t-test is a statistical hypothesis test that allows researchers to compare the means of two groups to determine if they are significantly different from each other. It is based on the Student’s t-distribution, a probability distribution that is used when the sample size is small or when the population standard deviation is unknown.

Set – 2

1. Interpret the meaning of tabulation? Illustrate the requisites of a standard table and analyse the main purposes of tabulation?       

Ans 1.

Tabulation, in the realm of data processing, is the systematic arrangement of data in rows and columns. It involves presenting complex data in a simple, concise, and easy-to-understand format that is accessible to non-specialists. A tabulated data set assists in visualizing patterns, trends, and discrepancies in the information and is vital for decision-

2. Describe errors in hypothesis testing. Compare the major differences between type-I error and type-II error.

In the realm of hypothesis testing, errors are an intrinsic part of the process, affecting the validity of the results. Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to make inferences or draw conclusions about populations based on sample data. Despite its widespread application across numerous disciplines, there are inherent uncertainties involved. These uncertainties result in errors, most notably known as Type I and Type II errors. These errors are not due to

3. (a) Discuss the problems that are involved in construction of index numbers.           

Ans 3(a)

Index numbers are statistical measures designed to represent changes in a variable or a group of related variables over time. They are vital tools for economists, policymakers, and businesses, allowing them to track economic trends, inflation rates, or the performance of specific industries. Despite their crucial role, the construction of index numbers is fraught

(b) What do you mean by report? Describe characteristics of an ideal report.  

Ans 3(b)

 A report is a structured document that presents detailed information on a particular topic in a clear and concise manner. It’s typically the outcome of an investigation or research and aims to inform, analyze, or recommend a course of

SESSIONApril 2023
PROGRAMBACHELOR OF Commerce
SEMESTERIII
course CODE & NAMEDCM2105–Financialstatement interpretation
CREDITS4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks02 30 Marks each

Q1a. “Analysis without interpretation is meaningless and interpretation without analysis is impossible”. Discuss in light ofthe above statement concept and the significance of financial statement analysis.

Ans 1a.

Financial statement analysis is the process of examining and evaluating a company’s financial statements for the purpose of making better economic decisions. These decisions can involve deciding whether to invest in the business, lend to it, or even work for it. Financial statement analysis may seem like a purely mathematical exercise with unambiguous outcomes, but the statement “Analysis without interpretation is meaningless, and interpretation without analysis

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Q1b. Explain the Components of the Income statement as per the revised Schedule III of the Companies act 2013.

Ans 1b.

The Companies Act 2013 requires all companies in India to prepare and present their financial statements in accordance with the schedule III of the act. The Income Statement or Statement of Profit and Loss, as per the revised Schedule III, consists of several components:

Revenue: This includes revenue from operations, which can be from the sale of goods or the

Q2. Following is the financial statement of Garima Ltd. Prepare the cash flow statement.

ParticularsNote No.31st March 202231st March 2021
(₹)(₹)
I) Equity and Liabilities   
1. Shareholders’ Funds   
a) Share capital14,40,0002,80,000
b) Reserve and surplus-Surplus240,00028,000
2. Current Liabilities   
a) Trade payables 1,56,00056,000
c) Short-term provisions 12,0004,000
(Provision for taxation)   
Total 6,48,0003,68,000
II) Assets   
1. Non-current assets   
a) Fixed assets   
i) Tangible 3,64,0002,00,000
2. Current assets   
a) Inventories 1,60,00060,000
b) Trade receivables 80,00020,000
c) Cash and cash equivalents 28,00080,000
d) Other current assets 16,0008,000
Total  6,48,0003,68,000
    
Notes to Accounts
Particulars 31st March 202231st March 2021
 (₹)(₹)
1. Share capital   
a) Equity share capital 3,00,0002,00,000
b) Preference share capital 1,40,00080,000
  4,40,0002,80,000
2. Reserve and surplus   
Surplus in statement of profit and loss at the beginning of the year 28,000  —–
Add: Profit of the year 16,000—–
Less: Dividend 4,000—–
Profit at the end of the year 40,000—–
   
Additional Information:
1. Interest paid on debenture ₹ 600
2. Dividend paid during the year ₹ 4,000
3. Depreciation charged during the year ₹ 32,000

Answer:

To prepare a cash flow statement, we typically need to break it down into three sections: Operating Activities, Investing Activities, and Financing Activities. We can start by calculating net cash flow from each of these activities.

Cash Flow from Operating Activities:

  • Start with the net profit for the year: ₹16,000

Q3. Prepare a schedule for changes in the working capital from the Balance sheet data given below:

 Dec 2020 (Rs.)Dec 2021 (Rs.)
Capital & Liabilities:  
Share Capital6,00,0007,50,000
Trade creditors2,12,0001,40,000
Profit & Loss A/c28,00062,000
 8,40,0009,52,000
Assets:  
Machinery140,0002,00,000
Stock-in-trade2,42,0002,72,000
Debtors3,62,0003,40,000
Cash96,0001,40,000
Total8,40,0009,52,000

Answer:

A schedule of changes in working capital can be prepared by calculating the working capital for each year and then finding the change from the previous year.

Working capital is typically calculated as Current Assets minus Current Liabilities.

From the provided Balance Sheet, we can identify Current Assets as:

  • Stock-in-trade
  • Debtors

Assignment Set – 2

4a. PQR Ltd. prepared and presented the financial statements for the financial year ending 31st March 2021. However, the company omitted ‘notes to accounts’ in its financial statements. You are required to comment on the validity of financial statements.

Ans 4a.

The omission of ‘notes to accounts’ in financial statements can be considered as a significant omission and affects the overall validity of the financial statements.

Notes to accounts, or footnotes, are integral components of financial statements because they provide detailed explanations of the numbers presented in the primary statements (i.e., the

4b. ₹ 4,00,000 is the cost of revenue from operations, inventory turnover is 5 times, stock at the beginning is 1.5 times of the stock at the end. Calculate the value of opening and closing stock.

Ans 4b.

Calculate the value of opening and closing stock using the provided information:

First, understand that the inventory turnover ratio is calculated as the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) divided by Average Inventory during the period. Here, we have the turnover ratio and COGS, but we also know that opening inventory is 1.5 times closing inventory.

Given:

  • COGS (Cost of revenue from operations) = ₹ 4,00,000

Q5a. State different techniques of earnings management.

Ans 5a.

Techniques of Earning Management

There are three types of techniques in earnings management they are:

· Aggressive & Abusive Accounting- Alludes to the quick increase in revenue recognition or sales. Abusive accounting uses the cookie jar, a huge bath, and other items to indicate that the year had a high

Q6. From the following Balance sheet of a concern for the year 2021 and 2022. Prepare a comparative Balance sheet and comment on the financial position of the concern:

Liabilities20212022Assets20212022
Equity Share capital6,00,0008,00,000Land & Buildings3,70,0002,70,000
Reserves & Surplus3,30,0002,22,000Plant & machinery4,00,0006,00,000
Debentures2,00,0003,00,000Furniture & Fixtures20,00025,000
Long-term loans on mortgage1,50,0002,00,000Other fixed assets25,00030,000
Bills payable50,00045,000Cash in hand and bank20,00080,000
Sundry creditors1,00,0001,20,000Bills receivable1,50,00090,000
Other current Liabilities5,00010,000Sundry Debtors2,00,0002,50,000
   Stock2,50,0003,50,000
   Prepaid Expenses 2,000
Total14,35,00016,97,000Total14,35,00016,97,000

Ans 6.

Here’s the comparative balance sheet for the years 2021 and 2022:

20212022Increase/DecreasePercentage change
LIABILITIES
Equity Share capital600,000800,000200,00033.33%
Reserves & Surplus330,000222,000-108,000-32.73%
Debentures200,000300,000100,00050%
Long-term loans on mortgage150,000200,00050,00033.33%
Bills payable50,00045,000-5,000-10%
Sundry creditors100,000120,00020,00020%
Other current Liabilities5,00010,0005,000100%
SESSIONMARCH 2023
PROGRAMMASTER OF COMMERCE (M.COM.)
SEMESTERI
COURSE CODE & NAMEDCM 6106-FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING & REPORTING
CREDITS4
NUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & MARKS02 30 Marks each

Assignment Set – 1

1.From the following information, create income statement and balance sheet of Sriram ltd. on 31st March 2021

Amount

Particulars      Amount          Particulars

Capital            207100            Cash at Bank  26000

Drawing          7000    Salaries           8000

Plant &Machine         120000            Repairs            1900

Delivery vehicle         26000  Opening Stock           16000

sundry debtors          36000  Rent    4500

Manufacturing

Sundry creditors        26000  Expenses         1500

Purchases       20000  Bills Payable   23500

Sales    42000  Bad debts       5000

Carriage

Wages 8000    Inwards           1600

Additional Information:

1. Closing stock wasRs.16000

2. Depreciate Plant & Machine @10% and Delivery vehicle@20%

3.   Unpaid rent amounted toRs.1000

4.   Provision for Bad debt is to be made at 10%   5+5      10

Ans:
Based on the information provided, we can construct the Income Statement (Profit & Loss Account) and Balance Sheet of Sriram Ltd. for the year ending 31st March 2021. Please note that depreciation is treated as an expense on the income statement, reducing the company’s profit, and is also used to reduce the book value of the asset on the balance sheet. Provisions

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2. Elaborate the conceptual framework of accounting as per qualitative characteristics and justify its necessity of adopting

Asn 2.

The conceptual framework of accounting is a set of principles that provides a coherent and consistent foundation for financial reporting. It’s a system of interconnected objectives and fundamentals that should lead to consistent standards. Essentially, it describes the fundamental concepts that underpin the preparation and presentation of financial statements

3. a) State the principles and method of recognizing Investment in Associate and Joint Venture in consolidated Financial Statements.

Ans:

Investments in associates and joint ventures are recognized under the equity method in consolidated financial statements according to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).

b) List disclosure of consolidated Financial Statements.  

Ans:

The preparation and disclosure of consolidated financial statements are essential for ensuring transparency and providing a complete picture of a parent company’s overall health, including its subsidiaries. Here are some of the key components and disclosures typically included in

Assignment Set – 2

4. a) List out reporting areas that may be relevant to a particular company or organization when considering matters related to Corporate Responsibility (CR) in financial reporting.

Ans:

Corporate Responsibility (CR), also known as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), is a self-regulating business model that helps a company be socially accountable to itself, its stakeholders, and the public. It encompasses not only what companies do with their profits,

b) Explain is there any difference between the Impairment and Depreciation of Non -Current Assets.?

Difference between impairment and depreciation of non-current assets

Depreciation: This refers to the gradual reduction in the value of a non-current, tangible asset over its useful life. It reflects the wear and tear or obsolescence of an asset due to regular

5. Write short note on:

1. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

Ans:

The IFRS addresses International Financial Reporting Standards are the rules and rules which every business entity needs to follow to guarantee their money-related reports are obvious with different firms all through the worldwide; these norms pick the way wherein the business

2. Triple Bottom Line

Ans:

The term triple bottom line concern acknowledges that associations should zero in on focusing as much on amicable and regular concerns as they do on benefits. TBL theory sets that there should be three: advantage, people, and the planet instead of one essential worry.

People+Planet=Social+Corporatesocial responsibility.

3. Type of employee benefits

Ans:

There are three types of employee benefits that are short term benefits, long-term benefits, and post-employment benefits.

A. Short term employee benefits:

4. Elements of Financial Statement.

Ans:

A Financial Statement comprises five primary elements that define a company’s financial health.

Assets: These are the resources owned by a company, including tangible items like property, equipment, and inventories, and intangibles such as patents, trademarks, and goodwill.

Liabilities: These are the company’s financial obligations or debts, like loans, accounts

6. “Integrated Reporting (IR) recognizes six comprehensive classifications of capital that organizations utilise to fulfil the demands of different stakeholders, including financial, human, social and relationship, manufactured, intellectual, and natural capitals”. Explain all the capitals involved as per integrated reporting in detail with examples.

Ans:
Integrated Reporting (IR) is a novel approach to corporate reporting that seeks to provide a more holistic view of an organisation’s value creation process. It acknowledges the multi-dimensional nature of value and recognises six capitals that organisations employ.

Financial Capital: This is the money that an organisation needs to run its operations. It includes funds obtained through financing, such as debt, equity, or internally generated

SESSIONMARCH  2023
PROGRAMMASTER OF COMMERCE (M.COM.)
SEMESTERI
COURSECODE&NAMEDCM6101–MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
CREDITS4
NUMBEROFASSIGNMENTS& MARKS02 30Markseach


Assignment Set – 1

1. Discuss the 14 principles of management.          

The 14 principles of management were developed by Henri Fayol, a French engineer in the 19th and early 20th century, who is considered one of the forefathers of modern management theory. These principles offer a framework for managers to understand and apply in their management practices.

  1. Division of Work: Specialization allows workers to improve their skills and

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2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Enterprise Function.   

Ans 2.

Enterprise function refers to the various major operational segments of a business, such as finance, marketing, production, human resources, and so on. These functions form the backbone of any organization and contribute towards its functioning, performance, and growth.

The advantages and disadvantages of enterprise functions:

3. Explain the importance of control in an organisation. 

Ans 3.

Control is an essential aspect of organizational management that plays a crucial role in achieving the desired objectives and ensuring the efficient functioning of the organization. It involves monitoring, evaluating, and regulating various processes and activities within the organization to ensure they align with the predetermined goals

Assignment Set – 2

4. “Perception is perhaps the most important aspect of OB that we use in our daily life and in management.” Comment.     

Ans 4.

“Perception” is an individual’s way of interpreting, understanding, and making sense of their environment and interactions. The term “organizational behavior” (OB) refers to the study of individuals and their behavior within the context of organizations in a workplace setting. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and

5. Explain the Goleman’s model of Emotional Intelligence (EI).  

Ans 5.

Daniel Goleman’s model of Emotional Intelligence (EI) is one of the best-known models in this field. In his 1995 book “Emotional Intelligence – Why it can matter more than IQ”, Goleman proposed that Emotional Intelligence comprises five core competencies: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills.

Self-Awareness: This is the ability to recognize and understand personal moods and

6. Differentiate between the Positive consequences and Negative consequences as an outcome of conflict.           

Ans 6.

Positive consequences and negative consequences can both arise as outcomes of conflicts. Let’s explore the differences between them:

Positive Consequences of Conflict:

  • Increased Awareness: Conflict can lead to a deeper understanding of different perspectives, values, and beliefs. It allows individuals or groups to gain insights
SESSIONJAN/FEB 2023
PROGRAMMASTER of COMMERCE (MCOM)
SEMESTERI
course CODE & NAMEDCM6102 – MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS
CREDITS4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks02 30 Marks each

Assignment Set – 1

1. Define the term ‘managerial economics’. Explain significance of the study of managerial economics.       

Ans 1.

Managerial Economics

Managerial economics is a science that deals with the application of various economic theories, principles, concepts and techniques to business management in order to solve business and management problems. It deals with the practical application of economic theory and methodology in decision-making problems faced by private, public and non-profit making organisations. The same idea has been expressed by Spencer and Siegelman, in the

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2. Define production function. State types and function of production function.

Ans 2.

Production function: The entire theory of production centres revolves around the concept of production function. A “production function” expresses the technological or engineering relationship between physical quantity of inputs employed and physical quantity of outputs obtained by a firm. It specifies a flow of output resulting from a flow of inputs during a specified period of time. It may be in the form of a table, a graph or an equation specifying

3. Explain different types of cost.   

Ans 3.

The types of costs are as follows:

1. Money cost and real cost – When cost is expressed in terms of money, it is called as money cost. It relates to money outlays by a firm on various factor inputs to produce a commodity. In a monetary economy, all kinds of cost estimations and calculations are made in terms of money only. Hence, the knowledge of money cost is of great importance in economics. Exact measurement of money cost is possible. When cost is expressed in terms of

Assignment Set – 2

1. Explain causes of inflation in detail.           

Ans 1.

Inflation refers to the overall general upward price movement of goods and services in an economy, often measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the Producer Price Index (PPI). When the inflation rate rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services, effectively reducing the purchasing power per unit of money.

There are various factors that contribute to inflation, which can be broadly classified into two

2. Explain different objectives of pricing policies. 

Ans 2.

The objectives of pricing policies

While formulating its pricing policy, a firm has to consider various economic, social, political and other factors. The following objectives are to be considered while fixing the prices of the product:

1. Profit maximisation in the short term – The primary objective of the firm is to maximise its profits. Pricing policy as an instrument to achieve this objective should be formulated in

3. Define monetary policy. State the objectives of monetary policy in developing countries.    

Ans 3.

Monetary policy

Monetary policy is a policy employed by central banks to control the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency. The central bank achieves this by managing the country’s money supply through mechanisms such as modifying interest rates, buying or selling government bonds, regulating

SESSIONMARCH 2023
PROGRAMMASTER of COMMERCE (MCOM)
SEMESTERI
course CODE & NAMEDCM6103 – FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
CREDITS4
Number OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks02 30 Marks each

Assignment Set – 1

1(a) Define financial management. Also, describe various functions of financial management.

Ans 1(a)

Financial management is the art and science of managing money. Regulatory and economic environments have undergone drastic changes due to liberalisation and globalisation of changed the profile of Indian finance managers. Indian finance managers have transformed themselves from License Raj managers to well-informed, dynamic, proactive managers capable of taking decisions of complex nature.

Traditionally, financial management was considered as a branch of knowledge that focused

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b) Compare profit maximization and shareholder’s wealth maximization objective.    

Ans:

Profit maximization and shareholder wealth maximization are two critical objectives in financial management. Both play pivotal roles in the business environment, but they significantly differ in their philosophy, implications, and overall focus.

Profit Maximization refers to a short-term objective of a business, aiming to achieve the

2. The following information has been extracted from the balance sheet of Surya Ltd.:

₹   in Lacs

Equity Share Capital            900

12% Preference Share Capital        900

18% Debentures        1,200

                                    3,000

Ans 2.

Determine the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) of the company. It had been paying dividends at a consistent rate of 25% per annum. Equity shares, preference shares and debentures are being traded at par. Tax rate is 35%.           

The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is the average rate of return a company is

3(a) Describe the process of financial planning.

Ans.

Financial planning is a comprehensive process that helps individuals and businesses effectively manage their finances to achieve their goals and secure their future. Here’s a step-by-step description of the process:

  1. Set Clear Objectives: The first step in financial planning is identifying your financial

(b) Determine the degree of operating, financial and combined leverage of a company from the following data:

Sales    ₹25,00,000

Fixed Costs                ₹7,50,000

Interest Charges        ₹4,50,000

Variable expenses are 35% of sales.

Ans:

Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL)

Formula: DOL = Q * (P – V) / Q * (P – V) – F

Where:

Q = Quantity of Output

P = Price per Unit

Assignment Set – 2

1. Describe the assumptions and implications of ‘Net Income Approach’ and ‘Net Operating Income Approach’ of capital structure.

Ans:
Net Income Approach

The Net Income (NI) approach is a capital structure theory proposed by Durand which assumes that the capital structure of a firm significantly influences its market value. The primary assumptions of this approach are:

Cost of Debt is Less than Cost of Equity: The theory assumes that the cost of debt is less

2. Describe concept and determinants of working capital in detail.                    

Ans 2.

A large number of factors influence working capital needs of a firm. The basic objective of a firm’s working capital management is to ensure that the firm has adequate working capital for its operations, neither too much nor too little. Figure depicts factors that determine the working capital.

3. You have received a project proposal with a life expectancy of 5 years:

Particulars                 Years                Amount in ₹

Initial Investment         0                      3,00,000

Cash Inflows                1                        60,000

                                     2                         60,000

                                     3                           90,000

                                     4                            1,10,000

                                      5                            90,000

Compute:

(a)        Net Present Value of project applying discount rate of 7%

(b)       Payback Period        

Ans:
(a) The Net Present Value (NPV) of a project is calculated by discounting each cash inflow at the given discount rate and then subtracting the initial investment.

Here’s how we calculate the NPV for each year:

For Year 1:

₹60,000 / (1+0.07)^1 = ₹56,075.19

SESSIONMarh 2023
PROGRAMmaster of commerce (M com)
SEMESTERI
course CODE & NAMEDCM 6104 -cost analysis& control
CREDITS4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks02 30 Marks each

ASSIGNMENT SET-1

1(a) Discuss the functional classification of cost.

Ans 1a.

In cost accounting, costs are classified into various categories based on their functions within an organization. The functional classification of costs is important as it helps in understanding and analyzing the cost structure of a business. Here are the main functional

1(b) What are the factors to be considered while installing good costing system ?        

Ans 1b.

When installing a good costing system, several factors should be considered to ensure its effectiveness and relevance to the organization’s needs. Here are some key factors to consider:

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2. Selling price per unit Rs.40

Variable cost per unit Rs.30

Fixed overheads Rs.40000

From the above given data calculate:

a.         The breakeven sales in Rupees will be?

b.         If sales are 20% above BEP, determine the net profit.     


Ans 2.

To calculate the breakeven sales in rupees, we need to determine the breakeven point (BEP) first. The breakeven point is the level of sales at which total revenue equals total costs, resulting in zero profit.

The formula to calculate the breakeven point is:

BEP (in units) = Fixed overheads / (Selling price per unit – Variable cost per unit)

3(a) Explain the cost analysis in making or buy decision.

Ans 3a.

In the context of business decision-making, the “make or buy” decision refers to the choice between producing goods or services internally (making) or outsourcing them from external suppliers (buying). Cost analysis plays a crucial role in evaluating the financial implications

3(b) What is difference between allocation &apportionment of overhead?       

Ans 3b.

In the context of cost accounting, both allocation and apportionment are methods used to distribute or assign overhead costs to various cost centers or products. While the terms “allocation” and “apportionment” are often used interchangeably, there is a subtle difference

ASSIGNMENT SET-2

4(a) State advantages and disadvantages of Just in Time.

Ans 4(a)

Just in Times gives advantages to the company and also to the customers of your company. JIT helps in reducing the cost of inventory, reduce payment timeline, reduce warehouse cost, reduce lead time, reduce planning complexity and improve the quality of products, etc.

4b. The activity levels of two months are given for May month production are 1000 units and semi variable cost is Rs. 14000 and for June month Production are 1200 units and semi variable cost is Rs. 16000.Calculate the variable and fixed elements by using comparison method.

Ans 4b.

To calculate the variable and fixed elements using the comparison method, we need to compare the activity levels of two months (May and June) and the corresponding semi-variable costs.

5(a) Explain the Types of Environmental cost.

Ans 5(a)

Types of Environmental cost

There has been a burden on various enterprises to minimise their environmental impact. To do this, enterprises are required to understand the concept of environmental costs. These costs can be divided into two classifications that are as below:

5(b)Explain any 5 principles of Total Quality Management?      

Ans 5(b)

Principles of Total Quality Management

Total quality management consists of various vital principles executed together to accomplish business excellence. There are eight principles of TQM that were originated by an international organisation for controlling ISO quality standards. ISO allows

6(a) What are the advantages of marginal costing?

Ans 6(a)

The following are the advantages of marginal costing:

  • Marginal costing is simple to understand and easy to operate.
  • Closing stock is valued at marginal cost only. Thus, marginal costing shows the true valuation of closing stock by disregarding the illogical carry forward of fixed cost

6b. If sales are Rs.10,00,000; variable costs are Rs.4,00,000 and fixed cost are Rs.4,80,000; calculate the P/V Ratio and Margin of safety.

Ans 6b.

To calculate the P/V (Profit-Volume) ratio, you can use the following formula:

P/V Ratio = (Contribution / Sales) * 100

Contribution can be calculated by subtracting the variable costs from the sales. In this case:

SESSIONMAR 2023
PROGRAMMASTER of COmmerce(M.COM.)
SEMESTERI
course CODE & NAMEDCM6105 BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC LAWS
CREDITS4
nUMBER OF ASSIGNMENTS & Marks02 30 Marks each

Assignment Set – 1

1.“Contract is an agreement enforceable by law.” Support the statement and describe the essentials of a valid contract.        

Ans 1.

The statement “Contract is an agreement enforceable by law” is supported by the legal concept of contracts. A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties that creates certain rights and obligations for each party involved. For a contract to be valid and enforceable, it must contain several essential elements. These essentials of a valid contract include:

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2. Discuss the rights and duties of an agent.          

Ans 2.

As an agent, whether in the context of a legal representative, a business agent, or any other capacity, there are certain rights and duties that come with the role. Let’s discuss them in detail:

Rights of an Agent:

  • Right to Compensation: An agent has the right to receive reasonable compensation for

3. Define “Unpaid Seller” under Sales of Goods Act. Explain the rights of an unpaid seller.

Ans 3.

Under the Sales of Goods Act, an “unpaid seller” refers to a person or entity who has sold goods to a buyer on credit or under any other form of deferred payment arrangement, but has not yet received the full payment for those goods. The term “unpaid seller” applies to both the seller of the goods and any successors or legal representatives

Assignment Set – 2

1. Throw light on the benefits of the right to information from the purview of the Right to Information Act 2005.

Ans 1.

The Right to Information Act (RTI Act) of 2005 is a crucial legislation that empowers citizens in India to access information held by public authorities. It plays a significant role in promoting transparency, accountability, and participatory governance. Here are some benefits of the right to information under the purview of the RTI Act:

Transparency: The RTI Act ensures transparency by granting citizens the right to access

2. Elaborate the prime objectives and functions of SEBI under Securities & Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.  

Ans 2.

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulatory authority responsible for overseeing the securities market in India. The prime objectives and functions of SEBI, as defined under the Securities and Exchange Board of

3. Compare the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 with newly enacted Consumer Protection Act 2019.           

Ans 3.

The Consumer Protection Act, 1986, and the newly enacted Consumer Protection Act, 2019, both aim to safeguard the interests and rights of consumers in India. However, there are several significant differences between the two acts. Here’s a comparison of the two acts:

Scope and Applicability:

MAJM Solved Assignments MUJ 2023

 

SESSION FEB/MAR 2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF ARTS – JOURNALISM & MASS COMMUNICATION (MA JMC)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME DMJ6107 – BASICS OF AUDIO & VISUAL COMMUNICATION

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. ‘Community radio stations have the capability to enlighten the rural development in India’. Discuss the statement with examples.

Ans:The statement that “Community radio stations have the capability to enlighten rural development in India” holds true, as community radio has the potential to play a significant role in empowering rural communities and fostering their development.

Here are some reasons supporting this statement along with examples: 

Localized Information and Awareness: Community radio stations are rooted in local communities and focus

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  1. How would you prepare yourself to interview a celebrity of your choice for a television channel?

Ans:Preparing for an interview with a celebrity for a television channel requires thorough research, planning, and professional conduct.

Here are the steps you can take to prepare yourself for such an interview: 

Research the Celebrity:

 

 

  1. “Writing for Television is different from writing for print, radio, or the internet”. Comment.

Ans:Writing for television is indeed different from writing for print, radio, or the internet. Here are some key aspects that distinguish television writing: 

Visual Medium: Television is primarily a visual medium, and writing for television involves creating content that can be effectively translated into visuals and captured by cameras. Writers must consider the visual elements, such as set design, costumes, props, and actions, and write in a way that engages the audience visually.

Collaborative Process:

 

Assignment Set – II

  1. Discuss in detail why TV serials and reality shows continue to attract large audiences everywhere.

Ans:TV serials and reality shows continue to attract large audiences for several reasons: 

Entertainment and Escapism: TV serials and reality shows provide entertainment and escapism for viewers. They offer a break from daily routines and allow people to immerse themselves in engaging storylines, relatable characters, and intriguing conflicts. Whether it’s a gripping drama series or a reality competition, these shows offer a form of entertainment that captivates and engages audiences, allowing them to temporarily escape from their own lives.

Emotional Connection

 

  1. ‘Mushrooming of news channels may lead to high competition and thereby reduce the quality of the profession’. Critically examine the statement with examples.

Ans:The statement that the mushrooming of news channels may lead to high competition and thereby reduce the quality of the journalism profession can be examined from different perspectives.

Here are some critical points to consider: 

Rush for Ratings

 

 

  1. Write briefly regarding production stages – production, pre-production, and post-production with an example.

Ans:Production Stages in Filmmaking:  Pre-production: Pre-production is the initial stage of filmmaking where all the planning and preparation takes place before the actual shooting begins. It involves various tasks such as scriptwriting, creating a production budget, securing funding, casting actors, scouting locations, designing sets, and creating a production schedul

 

 

SESSION FEB/MAR 2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF ARTS – JOURNALISM & MASS COMMUNICATION (MA JMC)
SEMESTER I
COURSE CODE & NAME DMJ6106 – DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIA

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. How is mass media a part of our everyday life? Elaborate with proper examples.

Ans: Mass media has become an integral part of our everyday lives, shaping how we receive and consume information, influencing our opinions, and providing entertainment.

Here are several ways in which mass media has a significant presence in our daily lives, along with examples: 

News Consumption: Mass media, including newspapers, television news, radio, and online news sources, provide us with daily updates on local, national, and international events. We rely on these sources to

 

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  1. In the context of the rapid growth of digital media, discuss the future of television as a mass communication channel.

Ans: The rapid growth of digital media has undoubtedly transformed the landscape of mass communication, including the television industry. While the future of television as a mass communication channel is evolving, it continues to hold relevance and adapt to changing consumer preferences

 

  1. Discuss in detail the history and growth of All India Radio.

Ans: (AIR), known since 1956 as ‘Akashvani,’ is India’s national public radio broadcaster. It was established in 1936. AIR is the largest radio network globally broadcasting organisation all over the world in terms of the number of languages and the spectrum of socioeconomic and cultural diversity it serves. Its home service comprises 420 stations located across the country, reaching nearly 90%

 

Assignment Set – II

  1. Analyse the influence of video/visual programs in cultivating violent behaviour among children.

Ans: The influence of video/visual programs on cultivating violent behavior among children is a topic of on-going debate and research.

While it is difficult to establish a direct causal relationship between watching violent content and engaging in violent behavior, there are several factors to consider when analysing this issue: 

Observational Learning: Children, especially at a young age, are highly susceptible to observational learning. They tend to imitate behaviors they see in the media, including violence. When

 

  1. ‘Radio was considered the best medium for disseminating developmental issues to the rural mass.’ Express your views on this statement.

Ans: The statement that “Radio was considered the best medium for disseminating developmental issues to the rural mass” holds significant validity, particularly in the context of rural areas and developing regions.

Here are my views

 

  1. Explain with suitable examples the impact of globalization on Indian cinema.

Ans: Globalization has had a significant impact on Indian cinema, both in terms of content and reach.

Here are some examples of how globalization has influenced Indian cinema: 

Increased International Recognition: Indian films, particularly those from the Hindi film industry (Bollywood), have gained global recognition and a wider international audience. Films like “Slum dog Millionaire” (2008), directed by Danny Boyle, showcased Indian talent and culture to a global

 

SESSION Jan/Feb 2023
PROGRAM MASTER OF JOURNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATION(MAJMC)
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DMJ6105– Concept of news and reporting

 

Assignment Set – 1

  1. What are news values? Explain with examples.

Ans:News values are determined by a set of simple factors or “news elements,” like proximity, influence, change, prominence, conflict, topic, usefulness, and rarity. Reporters typically consider seven news elements when making reporting decisions.

Any organisation producing content use the following seven news elements as a starting point and general

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  1. What is a “Headline”? Explain different types of headlines in example?

Ans:Headlines are the main piece of your article composing. The primary thing can command the notice of your reader or web guest. Your headlines are your first genuine place of association with your forthcoming client, so you need to get them right. Your headlines are imperative to your reader as it is an extraordinary pointer of your actual ‘conduct.’

Types of

  1. “Inverted pyramid style of news writing helps in better understanding of news”. Explain the statement.

Ans:The statement “Inverted pyramid style of news writing helps in better understanding of news” is accurate. The inverted pyramid style is a widely used approach in news writing where the most important information is presented at the beginning of the article, followed by supporting details in descending order of importance. This structure allows readers to quickly grasp the main points of

 

Assignment Set – 2

  1. “Information gathering is a technique as well as an art”. Explain the statement how various techniques and sources that are used for gathering news.

Ans:The statement “Information gathering is a technique as well as an art” highlights the dual nature of gathering news. It involves both technical skills and a creative approach to gather accurate and compelling information. Journalists employ various techniques and sources to gather news, combining their

 

  1. Write short notes on the following:
  2. a) Reporting Ethics

Ans: Reporting ethics refers to the principles and guidelines that journalists and media organizations adhere to when gathering, verifying, and disseminating news stories. Ethical journalism aims to provide accurate, fair, and responsible reporting that upholds the public’s right to information and serves the public interest.

Here are some key

 

  1. What is a vox pop? Explain the different types of Vox-Pop.

Ans:’Vox Pop’ comes from the Latin word ‘vox populi’, which means ‘Voice of People’. The Vox Pop is used in media to provide a snapshot of public opinion. Various random questions are asked in vox pop to have people’s views on a particular topic and presented to reflect popular opinion. Vox pops can be published in newspapers or recorded for radio and televis

 

SESSION March 2023
PROGRAM Journalism & Mass COMMUNICATION
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DMJ6104 Communication theories & Models

 

Assignment Set – 1

Questions

  1. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative research. Provide examples.

Ans: Quantitative Research Quantitative research methods are intended to create statistically valid data that reveals the number of people who do or believe something. Quantitative data is usually expressed numerically in the form of averages, ratios, or ranges. When doing a large-scale needs assessment or baseline survey, quantitative research is extremely valuable. It also involves a deductive approach to the relationship between theory and research, emphasising testing theories. It also incorporates practices and norms of the natural scientific model and

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  1. Explain how mass communication is different from other forms of communication.
    Ans: Mass communication
    is a distinct form of communication that differs from other types of communication based on several key characteristics. Here’s an explanation of how mass communication sets itself apart: Audience Size and Reach: Mass communication involves the dissemination of
  1. Define theory. Discuss the characteristics of a good theory.

Ans: The term “theory” refers to a “system of concepts and statements, models, or principles that, when applied together, make the empirical world more understandable.” The theory explains the phenomenon based on a set of criteria, whereas the paradigm offers the context or framework within which a theory can be tested and quantified.

Reviewing of all previous findings of similar studies, simple logical deductions, and knowledge of

 

  1. Write a short note on empiricism.

Ans: Empiricism is the belief that all knowledge is derived from sense perception and emphasises the importance of experience and evidence. It argues that only a posteriori knowledge can be gained by human beings (i.e., based on experience). Similarly, most empiricists reject the idea of innatism or innate ideas (that the mind is born with ideas or knowledge and is not

 

  1. Analyse the social constructivist paradigm using suitable examples.

Ans: The social constructivist paradigm is a theoretical framework within social sciences that emphasizes the role of social interactions, language, and shared meanings in the construction of knowledge and

 

Assignment Set – 2

  1. Examine critically the social responsibility theory of media and its relevance in contemporary society.

Ans: The social responsibility theory of media is a normative theory that suggests the media has a responsibility to serve the public interest and function as a watchdog for democracy. It argues that media organizations should be accountable for their actions, provide accurate and unbiased information, and promote the well-being of society. However, while the theory has its merits, its relevance in contemporary society can be subject to critical examinati

 

  1. Discuss the significance of models in communication. Write a critique of Aristotle’s communication model.

Ans: Significance of Models in Communication:  Models play a crucial role in the field of communication by providing simplified representations of complex communication processes.

Here are some key reasons why models are significant in communication: 

Understanding

 

  1. Analyse critically the agenda setting theory of communication with appropriate examples.

Ans: The agenda-setting theory of communication suggests that the media plays a significant role in influencing the public’s perception of social issues by determining the prominence and salience of topics. It posits that the media’s selection and presentation of news stories shape the public’s agenda and the issues they perceive as important. While the theory has garnered considerable attention and suppo

 

SESSION MArch 2023
PROGRAM MAJMC
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DMJ6103; Fundamentals of Photography

 

Set – 1

  1. What are the fundamental principles of photography and how do they impact the final image?

Ans:The fundamental principles of photography are the basic concepts and techniques that guide photographers in capturing compelling and visually appealing images. Understanding these principles is crucial for controlling the technical aspects of photography and creating impactful

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  1. What is the importance of lighting in photography, and how can different lighting techniques be used to create different moods and emotions in an image?

Ans:Lighting plays a crucial role in photography, as it has a significant impact on the overall mood, atmosphere, and emotional tone of an image. Understanding how to use different lighting techniques can help photographers create specific moods and evoke desired emotions.

Here’s an

 

  1. What is the difference between manual and auto mode? What are the basic rules of composition in photography?

Ans: The difference between manual and auto mode in photography lies in how the camera settings are controlled: 

Manual Mode: In manual mode, the photographer has full control over all the camera settings, including aperture, shutter speed, ISO, white balance, and focus. The photographer manually adjusts these settings based on their creative intent, the lighting conditions, and the desired

Set – 2

  1. What are some common challenges faced by photographers, and what techniques can be used to overcome them and achieve successful results?

Ans: Photography comes with its own set of challenges, regardless of the genre or skill level of the photographer.

Here are some common challenges faced by photographers and techniques to overcome them: 

Lighting Challenges: Low Light: In situations with low light, use a wider aperture (lower f-stop) to allow more light into the camera or increase the ISO to boost the sensor’s sensitivity. Alternatively, use a tripod

 

  1. What is the golden rule in photography? What is the difference between mobile and traditional photography?

Ans: The “golden rule” in photography is not a widely recognized term or principle. It may be a misinterpretation or confusion with the “rule of thirds,” which is a commonly known guideline in photography composition. The rule of thirds suggests dividing the frame into a grid of nine equal parts by drawing two horizontal lines and two vertical lines.

The main subject or points of interest are ideally placed along these lines or at their intersections.  While the golden rule is not a specific concept in photography, there are several other

  1. How does the use of different camera angles and perspectives affect the visual storytelling of an image, and what are some common techniques used in this regard?

Ans: The use of different camera angles and perspectives can greatly impact the visual storytelling of an image. By changing the viewpoint, photographers can evoke specific emotions, convey messages, emphasize certain elements, and create a unique narrative.

Here’s how camera angles and

SESSION March 2023
PROGRAM Journalism & Mass COMMUNICATION
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DMJ6102

Social structure & current affairs

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

  1. Explain the concept of social structure. Briefly discuss the various elements of social structure.

Ans:”Social structure indicates an ordered arrangement of parts which can be treated transferable being relatively invariant while the other parts themselves are variable”. The word ‘structure’ means an arrangement of parts or components in a systemic pattern. It is a combined picture of interrelated components of any whole. Just as a building structure is made up of bricks, iron, wood, and many other materials, these components work together to make a designed

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  1. Define social movement. Explain different types of social movements with examples

Ans:Social movements affect society, but they can inspire following social activities. The Indian national movement influenced the development of the Indian Constitution. And how the Indian Constitution played a significant part in bringing about societal transformation. The social revolution of the 19th century, the campaigns against caste and gender discrimination, and

  1. Analyse gender stereotyping in the media using appropriate example/s.

Ans:Gender stereotyping in the media refers to the portrayal of individuals in ways that reinforce traditional and limiting gender roles and expectations. It perpetuates stereotypes and biases, which can have negative effects on individuals and society as a whole.

Here’s an analysis of gender stereotyping in the media using appropriate examples: 

Portrayal of Women:

 

Assignment Set – 2

 

  1. Write your perspective on the recent decision by the National Council of Educational Research and Training’s (NCERT) to omit certain sections from history textbooks for class 12. Provide justification for your response.

Ans:As an AI language model, I don’t have personal opinions or perspectives. However, I can provide a general analysis of the recent decision by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) to omit certain sections from history textbooks for class 12.

The decision to omit sections from history textbooks should be critically evaluated based on the justification provided and

 

  1. Define society. Discuss the differences between traditional and modern society.

Ans:As an AI language model, I don’t have personal opinions or perspectives.

However, I can provide a general analysis of the recent decision by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) to omit certain sections from history textbooks for class 12.  The decision to omit sections from history textbooks should be critically evaluated based on the justification provided and the potential implications it may have on students’ educatio

  1. Examine the impact of digital activism in bringing societal change in your country. Provide appropriate example/s.

Ans: Digital activism, also known as online activism or e-activism, refers to the use of digital platforms and technologies to promote social and political causes, raise awareness, mobilize supporters, and bring about societal change. In many countries, digital activism has played a significant role in shaping public discourse, challenging established power structures, and advocating for various

 

SESSION JAN/FEB 2023
PROGRAM MAJMC
SEMESTER I
course CODE & NAME DMJ6101; Basics of language

Set – 1

  1. Define Nouns and Pronouns. Elucidate the different types of Nouns.

Ans: A noun is a word used to refer to people, objects, animals, substances, events, states and feelings. A noun can be a subject or an object of a verb, can be modified by an adjective and can take an article or determiner.

For example:

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  1. Elaborate upon the steps of Copy editing in your own words.

Ans: Copy Editing is making grammar, spelling, punctuation, and semantics correct. It involves formatting variations and other enhancements to the document and also requires various abilities, including excellent language, an eye for detail, and alertness to find irregularities. Copyediting ensures that the true essence of the story reaches the audience. It is making sure that the facts quoted in the document are accurate. It draws the attention of authorities. In actuality, copy editing is a broad word that differs from one company to the next. As a result, some copy

 

  1. Describe Jargons, Slangs and Metaphors in detail giving appropriate

Ans: ‘Jargon’ refers to technical terms that belong to a particular subject area or discipline.

 

For example, medical jargon would include terms that only medical practitioners can understand. These terms cannot be understood by the common man.

 

Some of the terms in the medical jargon are, ’agonal’ meaning a major negative change in a patient’s

Set – 2

  1. What do you understand by Proofreading? Enlist the steps involved in proofreading.

Ans: Proofreading checks a copy to show perusing composed work and denoting any mistakes. These mix-ups most regularly include spelling, language, accentuation, and consistency. Proofreading is the ending of the editing process, and it focuses on minor problems like misspellings and grammatical andpunctuation faults. After completing all of your other editing

  1. Discuss the three parts of a sentence as well as the two Components of a sentence. Explain the different types of Sentences.

Ans:The three parts of a sentence and the two components of a sentence, as well as the different types of sentences.

Three Parts of a Sentence: A sentence typically consists of three essential parts: Subject: The subject is the part of the sentence that performs the action or is being described. It usually answers the question “Who?” or “What?” For example, in the sentence “John eats an apple,” “John” is the subject.

Verb: The

 

  1. Suppose you need to write a news script. Elucidate the writing methodology in detail.

Ans: News Scripts News script is the last update of any event or programme carried forward for the papers, blog, publication distributor, magazine, survey site. TV news is timely compared to print news writing that relates a bigger story, putting all the facts into context. News scriptwriting is a structural and strict process in the sense that it should cover all the relevant