BCA DCA2203 SYSTEM SOFTWARE

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SESSION MARCH 2024
PROGRAM Bachlor of computer APPLICATIONS (BCA)
SEMESTER IV
course CODE & NAME DCA2203 SYSTEM software

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 1

 

 

Q- 1 a. What is the use of Intel 8086? Explain the Architecture of the Intel 8086.

 

Ans 1a.

The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid1978. 8086 has 16-bit ALU; this means 16-bit numbers are directly processed by 8086. It contains a 16-bit data bus, so it can read data or write data to memory or I/O ports either 16 bits or 8 bits at a time. It has 20 address lines, so it can address up to 220 i.e. 1048576 = 1M bytes of memory (words i.e. 16-bit numbers are stored in consecutive memory locations). Due to the 1M bytes memory size multiprogramming is made feasible as well as several multiprogramming features have been incorporated into the 8086 design.

 Features of 8086

  • 8086 is a 16bit processor

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Q- 1 b. Define the difference between CISC and RISC Machines.

 

Ans 1b.

Comparison of CISC and RISC Architectures:

The architectures of CISC and RISC machines are introduced in the section that follows.

Traditional machines are CISC machines. We also have

 

 

Q2. Define the need for language processing. Explain the Activities of a language processor.

Ans 2.

The need for language processing arises from the distinction between how software behaves and how it is used in a computer system.The developer expresses the ideas related to the application domain of the software. To implement these ideas, their description should be interpreted as related to the execution domain of the computer system. Semantics represents the rules of the meaning of a domain; the Semantic gap represents the difference between the semantics of two domains. Software implementation using a PL (Programming Language) introduces a new domain, the PL domain. The semantic

 

 

 

Q-3 What is macro-Expansion? Define the Algorithm for Outline of Macro expansion. Explain the need of the nested macro calls.

Ans 3.

Macro Expansion

Macro expansion is a process in compilers where macro instructions are expanded into their underlying operations. This is commonly seen in programming environments with a pre-processor phase, such as C and C++, where macros are used to simplify code and improve readability. A macro is essentially a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence should be mapped to an output sequence based on predefined rules.

Algorithm for Macro

 

 

 

Assignment Set – 2

 

 

 

Q4. Describe the algorithm and Data Structures for a Linking Loader.

Ans 4.

Algorithm and Data Structures for a Linking Loader

A linking loader is a critical component of the system software that loads and links programs at the same time. It is responsible for collecting program modules and linking them together with the necessary system routines and libraries to create an executable program. The linking loader facilitates the effective use of memory and simplifies programming by resolving external references between object modules.

Algorithm for a Linking Loader

The linking loader typically

 

 

Q-5. Write short notes on: (i) Lexical Analysis (ii) Editors

Ans 5.

Lexical analysis

The lexical analyzer is the interface between the source program and the compiler. The lexical analyzer reads the source program one character at a time, carving the source program into a sequence of atomic units called tokens. Each token represents a sequence of characters that can be treated as a single logical entity. Identifiers, keywords, constants, operators, and punctuation symbols such as commas and parentheses are typical tokens. There are two kinds of tokens: specific strings, such as a semicolon and classes of strings, such as identifiers, constants, or labels. The lexical analyzer and the syntax analyzer are often grouped into the same pass. In that pass, the lexical analyzer operates either under the control of the parser or a co-routine with the parser. The parser asks the lexical

 

 

 

Q- 6a. What is Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)? Define the Steps in UPnP device addressing.

Ans 6a.

UPnP stands for Universal Plug and Play. This extends an existing technology called PnP (Plug and Play). The organization behind UPnP is known as the UPnP Forum, formed on October 18, 1999, to develop the Device Control Protocol (DCP). It is a group of companies and individuals who wish to create a standard way to allow devices to configure themselves. Over 200 companies signed on at the

 

 

 

Q- 6b. What is PCI interface? Explain its objective.

Ans 6b.

PCI interface

The PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) interface is a computer bus standard that was first introduced by Intel in 1992. PCI was designed to enable high-speed communication between the motherboard and attached hardware devices like graphics cards, network cards, sound cards, and other peripheral devices. The main objective of PCI is to provide a direct connection between these peripherals and the system’s CPU and memory, facilitating faster data transfer rates compared to older standards

 

 

 

Q- 6 c Define the difference between Bundles and Binders.

Ans 6c.

Bundles

Bundles are a key-value mapping data structure that Android uses primarily for passing data between activities and fragments. They are capable of holding various types of values and are commonly used to store small pieces of data during navigation from one component to another. Bundles are also used to save the state of an application in events like a configuration change (e.g., screen rotation), ensuring that no user data is lost. They are serialized and deserialized automatically by the